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Environmental Resources, Manuscript Groups 160-190

MG-160 Papers of Arthur H. James

25 cartons and 1 box

The papers of Arthur James consist of his papers, special files maintained by J. Paul Pedigo, secretary of the governor, and LeRoy V. Greene, the governor's assistant secretary. Within the papers are reports, 34 vols., featuring materials relevant to the anthracite coal industry, State Athletic Commission, Department of Banking, proposed flood control projects, departmental and legislative investigations, Interstate Commission on the Delaware River Basin, Department of Highways, state hospitals, labor relations, regulation of milk in Pennsylvania, penal institutions, Department of Public Instruction, Public Utility Commission, relief and welfare, Shenandoah Mine Cave-In, Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, and Works Progress Administration.

Also included is correspondence, 6.5 cu. ft., concerning the following: adjutant general, attorney general, appointments, problems in the coal fields, Bethlehem steel strike of 1941, Department of Commerce, flood control, Department of Forests and Waters, Game Commission, General State Authority, Department of Health, Department of Insurance, Department of Internal Affairs, Pennsylvania National Guard, Department of Labor and Industry, Liquor Control Board, Milk Control Board, Department of Mines, national defense, parks, Department of Property and Supplies, relief programs, selective service, State Council of Defense, State Police, Department of Revenue, etc.

Other major series embrace the following: appointment books, 4 vols.; addresses, 2 vols.; proclamations, 1 folder; executive orders, 1 folder; messages to the General Assembly, 3 folders; senate calendars, 5 folders; photographs, 1 folder; news releases, 2 cu. ft.; newspaper clippings, 11 cu. ft.; Pedigo's file (cabinet and staff lists, 1938-41; correspondence, 1939-43, WPA file, 1939-41; etc.), .5 cu. ft.; Greene's file (news surveys, 1939-42; speeches, telegrams, messages, cartoons, statements, and news releases, 1939-43, 9 vols.; and assignments and investigations, 1939-42), 5.5 cu. ft.; campaign material, 1937-38 (reports, addresses, photographs, etc.), 2 cu. ft.; "Martin-for-Governor Campaign" and Wendell L. Willkie campaign material, 1942 (addresses, releases, etc.), .2 cu. ft. Relevant materials are found chiefly within the series "Reports, 1937-1943, n.d." and "Executive Correspondence, 1937-1945."


1937-1943, & N.D.

Arranged chronologically by year and then by subject

1937-Anthracite Coal Industry. In Carton 9.

A folder "Anthracite Coal Industry" with an "Anthracite Coal Industry Survey Report of March 1, 1937 prepared for the Anthracite Institute. The survey covers 40 Pennsylvania anthracite coal companies and gives company statistics for the period 1926 to 1936. The companies surveyed are:

  • Alden Coal Co.
  • Bell Colliery Co.
  • Buck Mountain C.M. Co.
  • Buck Run Coal Co.
  • Centralia Collieries Co. Inc.
  • Cox Bros. & Co., Inc.
  • Dial Rock Coal Co.
  • E. Bear Ridge Colliery Co.
  • Frackerville Coal Co.
  • Glen Alden Coal Co.
  • Green Ridge Coal Co.
  • Haddon Coal Co.
  • Hudson Coal Co.
  • Jeddo-Highland Coal Co.
  • Kehoe-Berge Coal Co.
  • Kingston Coal Co.
  • Lehigh Navigation Coal Co.
  • Lehigh Valley Coal Co.
  • Lytle Coal Co.
  • Madiera, Hill Co.
  • Moffat Coal Co.
  • Pardee Bros. & Co. Inc.
  • Payne Coal Co.
  • Penn Anthracite Colliery Co.
  • Pine Hill Coal Co.
  • Pittson Co.
  • Pompey Coal Co.
  • P & R Coal & Iron Co.
  • Price-Pancoast Coal Co.
  • Repplier Coal Co.
  • St. Clair Coal Co.
  • Scranton Coal Co.
  • Sterrick Creek Coal Co.
  • Scranton Coal Co.
  • Stevens Coal Co.
  • Sullivan Trail Coal Co.
  • Susquehanna Collieries Co.
  • West End Coal Co.
  • Weston Coal Co.
  • Wolf Collieries Co. Inc.
  • Wyoming Valley Collieries Co.

Also in this folder is a January 12, 1939 letter from P. Joseph Brennan (president of the Independent Anthracite Miners Association to Governor James. The letter describes industry efforts to dewater and recondition abandoned collieries.

1938-1940-Biennial Report of the Department of Highways. In Carton 9.

The report describes:

  • Damage to roads due to the April 1940 floods
  • Photographs of flooding in Butler, Clinton, Delaware, and Wayne Counties in 1940
  • Changes in highway specifications including "no tolerance for excavation of rock" and guidelines for treatment of bituminous surface pavements.
  • Definition of class types and quantities of asphalt and tar used in highway construction
  • Soil surveys conducted prior to highway construction

1939-Interstate Commission on the Delaware River Basin. In Carton 9.

Carton 9 contains abundant documentation about the Interstate Commission on the Delaware River Basin (Incodel). The documents include:

  • Memo, March 20, 1939 concerning New Jersey's proposal to divert water from the Delaware River, thus depleting water supplies in Philadelphia.
  • Annual report of Incodel chairman, 1939 focuses upon issue of quantity and quality of Delaware River water.
  • Annual report of Incodel secretary and treasurer, 1940, allures to an Incodel report of 1939: "The Delaware River Basin: Planned Progress in Pollution Control." Unfortunately a copy of this report is not in the folder.
  • There is, however, a copy of the Incodel publication "The Delaware River Basin: Physical Facts." The publication describes regional features such as location, population, land, water, power, industry, transportation and recreation. It also has charts and maps.

1940-Proposed Flood Control Project in Plymouth, Luzerne County. In Carton 9.

The flood of the spring of 1940 and proposed flood control in Luzerne County is described in two reports:

  • A January 27, 1940 report of the Water and Power Resources Board of the Dept of Forests and Waters recommends flood prevention in Luzerne County
  • An April 24, 1940 report from Adjutant General Edward Martin is a chronology of the floods from the Commonwealth's perspective.

Executive Correspondence, 1937-1943

Anthracite Bootlegging Conference, 1940 folder. In Carton 10.

The folder contains a copy of a 1941 identifying bootleggers in the anthracite industry and a December 5, 1940 resolution of the Committee of Twelve, The committee which consists of mine operators and workers, asks for a law enforcement crackdown on bootlegging.

Anthracite Coal Conference, February 16, 1939 folder. In Carton 10.

Items of interest here include a list of coal operators attending the conference and those who were absent; correspondence from coal companies to Governor James concerning issues such as coal bootlegging, quality standards for anthracite and market competition from fuel oil.

Anthracite Coal File, 1938-1939. In Carton 10.

  • records of statistics kept by the Pa. Dept. of Mines: Total production figures, anthracite region, 1870-1936; total production figures for the bituminous region, 1877-1937; fatal accident production figures for the anthracite region, 1938; nonfatal accident production figures for the bituminous region, 1938-1939; fatal accident production figures for the bituminous region, first quarter 1939; fatal accident production figures, anthracite region, April 1939
  • Pa. Dept. of Mines, Chart, "Tons of Coal Mined and Coke Produced, 1938."
  • Blueprint maps of railroads and collieries in the northern, middle, western middle and southern anthracites regions of Pennsylvania

Anthracite Emergency Committee, 1938-1942. In Carton 10.

  • Minutes of the PA Senate Sub-committee on Mines and Mining, October 11, 1938
  • Production Plan for the Anthracite Industry," by the Anthracite Committee of the Dept. of Commerce, 1942
  • Bylaws of the Anthracite Emergency Committee
  • List of suspected anthracite bootleggers, March 20, 1941
  • List of anthracite bootleg mine fatalities by county, March 20, 1941
  • A copy of PA House Bill 1221 proposing creation of the Pennsylvania Anthracite Commission, April 10, 1939

Flood Control Data, 1940, 1942. In Carton 11.

  • List of roads closed due to high water in 1940
  • Memo of January 3, 1941 to Governor James from Secretary of Forests and Waters J. Albert Stewart recommending creation of a Governor's Emergency Flood Committee
  • Newspaper clipping of April 3, 1940 from the Philadelphia Record blaming Gov. James for 1940 flooding in Kingston, Luzerne County because he cut funds from the state flood control program in 1938.
  • Various memos to Gov. James about flood of 1940
  • Report of April 24, 1940 from Adjutant General Edward Martin citing how state handled flood disaster. Report includes aerial photographs of flooding in Bloomberg, Columbia County; Clarks Ferry, Dauphin County; Kingston, Luzerne County, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, Sunbury, Northumberland County, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, and the Wyoming Valley near Plymouth, Luzerne County..

Game Commission, 1940. In Carton 12.

  • Report, "Game Killed in Pennsylvania, December 22, 1939"
  • Correspondence of 1940 re leasing of Game Commission land in Lycoming County for potential coal mining. The Game Commission expresses concern about pollution of game land.

Game Commission, 1941 In Carton 12.

  • Marching Forward: A Review of the Pennsylvania Game Commission's Progress during the Biennium Ending May 31, 1940 by Game Commission Executive Director Seth Gordon. Gordon discusses special wildlife projects and cover planting in game lands among other topics.

Harrisburg Airport, Geology and other descriptive matter, May 14, 1940. In Carton 12.

  • Geology of Harrisburg Airport compiled by State Geologist George H. Ashley, May 27, 1940. Report claims that some of the area selected for the airport is underlain by limestone and is therefore subject to sinking. The report includes blueprints of the airport, geology of the area and photographs.

Harvey's Lake Protective Association, 1940-1942. In Carton 12.

  • Correspondence concerning the association based in Luzerne County and its efforts to gain state support for physical improvements around the lake.

MG-161 Papers of John M. Phillips

11 boxes and 2 volumes

Papers of John M. Phillips (b. 1861-d. 1953) John McFarlane Phillips is considered by some to be "the Grand Old Man of Conservation" in Pennsylvania. Born in Pittsburgh, Phillips served for many years as president of the Phillips Mine Supply Company that he co-founded there in 1898. In 1890, Phillips joined H. A. Penrose and Elmer F. Shaner in founding the Pennsylvania Sportsmen's Association. That group was part of a larger movement in the United States to safeguard wildlife and improve game populations. Phillips and his colleagues lobbied for the establishment of a state game commission. A law creating the Pennsylvania Game Commission was passed in 1895 but the General Assembly did not appropriate money for funding it until 1897. That same year, the state legislature approved various game laws supported by Phillips including acts outlawing hunting deer with hounds, hunting spring water fowls, sale of game birds and a daily bag quote for hunters. John M. Phillips was appointed to the Pennsylvania Game Commission in 1905. That year the Game Commission was successful in the passage of a law establishing game preserves or refuges for the protection of deer, wild turkey, grouse, quail, woodcock and other animals. Phillips and the Game Commission encountered more opposition, however, in their endeavor to pass a law requiring a $1 resident hunting license. In January 1913, Phillips proposed a proclamation later endorsed by the Game Commission calling for adoption of a resident hunting license. He petitioned Governor John K. Tener, asking "Give us a resident hunter's license and I will die happy." Theodore Roosevelt wrote Phillips in 1913 supporting the passage of a resident hunter license law in Pennsylvania. Governor Tener signed the bill into law on April 17, 1913. In 1919 another bill supported by Phillips became law allowing the Game Commission to use part of the hunting license fees to purchase land for game refuges and public hunting grounds. The following year, the first State Game Lands were purchased in Pennsylvania.

In 1924, Phillips and three other commissioners resigned from the Game Commission because of a dispute with fellow conservationist Governor Gifford Pinchot who ordered them to take an oath supporting the 18th Amendment of the United States Constitution. Phillips later turned down Governor John S. Fisher's invitation to serve on the Game Commission again. Although no longer on the Game Commission, Phillips continued to be active in conservation causes in the Commonwealth as well as nationally. He was, for example a trustee of American Wildlife Institute, Pennsylvania Field Trip Association, American Game Protective & Propagation Association, National Association of Audubon Societies, the National Parks Association and a member of the National Executive Board of the Boy Scouts of America. Phillips campaigned for the federal "Duck Stamp Bill" which called for a $1 federal migratory bird license. The bill became law on March 16, 1934. Phillips and the Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen's' Club Inc. played a role in the creation of Pymatuning Lake in 1934 and in the passage of a 1937 environmental law protecting the law from sewage, garbage, and oil contamination. The law is known as the Pennsylvania Clean Streams Act.

Phillips was a friend or associate of many environmentalists including President Theodore Roosevelt, Governor Gifford Pinchot, Governor John K. Tener, Frederick C. Walcott, chairman of the first United States Senate Wildlife Committee, Charles French of the Pennsylvania Commission of Fisheries, G. Albert Stewart, Secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, and Ross L. Leffler, president of the Pennsylvania Game Commission. In the 1930s, Phillips was elected to the Pittsburgh City Council. He was the recipient of the 1923 Outdoor Life Magazine Prize and many tributes by his fellow conservationists.

The Papers of John M. Phillips are organized into the following series: General Correspondence, Boy Scout Member, Invitations, Memberships, Tributes, Miscellaneous, Publications, Pictures, Accounts and Scrapbooks. The major documentation of his conservation work is found, however, in the general correspondence, letter press books, pictures, and scrapbooks.

General Correspondence


The general correspondence is arranged alphabetically according to correspondent or subject. By far, the correspondence has the richest information about Phillips' career. Listed below are selected prime examples of what is available here.

Box 1

American Game Protective Association, 1913-1929. 9 folders. Phillips was an early member of this organization founded in 1911. He joined its advisory committee in 1925.The folders contain the Associations' publications, copies of the Game Refuge Bill, and correspondence with many individuals especially Association president John B. Burnham. Subjects include the passage of Pennsylvania Fish, Game, and Forest laws in 1919

Board of Game Commissioners (Pennsylvania Game Commission), 1906-1952. 16 folders. Correspondence is chiefly with game protectors, game commissioners, and editors. Subjects mainly concern passage of the 1919 conservation laws.John M. Phillips, Member, 1911-1919, 1939. 6 folders. Correspondence is mainly with other sportsmen and state officials especially Governor Gifford Pinchot. Here are newspaper clippings and about the 1924 controversy between Phillips and Governor Pinchot, letter by Phillips declining reappointment to the Game Commission in 1924, letters from Pinchot and letters from others about the controversy.

Box 2

  • Resident Hunters License, 1909-1913, 1939, n.d. 1 folder. Items consist of copies of legislation, petitions to the General Assembly, newspaper editorials, and articles about hunting. The bill requiring hunters to acquire a resident hunters' license was signed into law by Governor John Tener in 1913.
  • General Correspondence, 1911-1913, 1939, n.d. 1 folder. A folder of miscellaneous correspondence within the larger series of the same name, dating mainly 1911-1913. Item of interest is a 1913 letter from Theodore Roosevelt supporting Phillips' work.
  • Folder "R-Shur" The item of interest is the correspondence with M. E. Sherman, Supervisor, Field Service, 1948-1952. Folder contains the March 3, 1949 publication Game Protector's Tips, letter from Sherman to Phillips, September 7, 1948 concerning Pine Blister contamination in the Cook State Forest, letter from Sherman to Phillips, May 31, 1952 on use of chemical spray to kill vegetation, letter from Sherman to Phillips, June 15, 1951 on fishermen's pollution of wildlife areas and streams.
  • Cook Forest Association, 1919-1953. 1 folder. Folder contains 1925 article, "Cook Forest" by Thomas Liggett, leaflet, "Cook Forest" by the Cook Forest Association, and "A Report on Cook Forest Park" circa 1949.

Box 4

  • Folder "Hu-Hy" In a December 1, 1949 letter to Michael Mudoba, Phillips recounts how as a youth he became interested in conservation as a result of the pollution of his favorite swimming hole.
  • Folder "In the Open," (a monthly magazine published in Pittsburgh devoted to outdoor life. Herein is information on the Wildlife League of Pennsylvania and its controversial relationships with both the Pennsylvania Game Commission and the Open Publishing Company, publisher of In the Open.
  • Folder "L" Correspondence of 1951 with Deputy Attorney Grover C. Ladner cites various environmental issues including sealing abandoned coal mines, prohibition of motor boats on Pymatuning Lake, and the role of conservation lobbying groups. There is also a 1913 article entitled "Slaughter of Wild Birds May Be Checked by Measure," from an unidentified publication.
  • Folder "McA-McS" Phillips writes about the problem of deer overpopulation in letters to Marshall McLean, June 21, 1951 and F. J. Market, August 16, 1948.There are also a letter and telegram dated 1945 from Phillips to Governor Edward Martin urging him to veto bill allowing motor boats on Pymatuning Lake.
  • Folder "Me" Letter from William B. Mershon to Phillips, July 10, 1924 discusses conservation in Pennsylvania; Letter from Phillips to Mershon, October 13 1935 discusses controversy between conservationists and farmers concerning the crow.
  • Folder "Mo-My" Folder contains letter from State Museum of Pennsylvania director Thomas L. Montgomery to Phillips seeking his help in acquiring bird specimens for the museum; a clipping from the Pittsburgh Telegraph of March 20, 1914 entitled "Phillips Wants Mulberry Trees for Bud Food"; a February 8, 1950 article in the Northwest Sportsmen by Seth L. Myers about deer involvement in automobile accidents.
  • Folder "Pr" Correspondence of Frank W. Preston focuses on the Oneida Dam and Carrie Creek in Butler County.
  • Pymatuning, Conservation Association, 1935-1951: Research Material. 1 folder. Contains many clippings about Pymatuning Lake and a copy of Phillips' testimony at a hearing on House Bill No. 412 before the Senate Committees on Forest and Waters and Game and Fish, March 27, 1945.
  • Pymatuning, Conservation Association, 1935-1951: General Correspondence. 1 folder. Folder contains Phillips' exchanges with state and federal officials, the Pymatuning Conservation Association, the Izaak Walton League of America and others concerning Pymatuning Lake.

Box 5

  • J. T. Rothrock folder. The folder contains a total of 15 letters along with the program of the 1919 Pennsylvania Forestry Association meeting and an article by Joseph Trimble Rothrock on saving the walnut tree.
  • Folder Wi-Wil. A letter of June 18, 1918 from Irvin C. Williams speaks of the Department of Forestry's planting of new walnut trees in the Commonwealth.

Letter Press Books


Box 6

These books contain Phillips' correspondence with fellow hunters, sportsmen, wildlife writers and publishers. There is also considerable correspondence with Game Commissioners especially Dr. Joseph Kalbus and with Dr. William T. Hornaday of the New York Zoological Park. Other notable correspondents include Governor John S. Tener and President Theodore Roosevelt.


1907, 1914, 1932 and n.d.

Box 11

Among the photographs are three 1932 photos of Cook Forest, an undated photo of an Arbor Day parade in Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, and a photograph taken by Philips of the Canadian Rockies circa 1907.



Box 11

The scrapbooks are in 2 volumes dated 1910 to 1922 and 1924 to 1932 and document Phillips' conservation career and personal life.

MG-163 Hubertis M. Cummings Collection

6 boxes

Papers of Dr. Hubertis Maurice Cummings, historian, author, and lecturer. Cummings was born in Harrisburg in 1884 where he graduated from Central High School in 1902. He attended Princeton University where he received a master's degree and a doctorate degree in English literature. His dissertation was on the English writer Chaucer. Cummings then taught at Mercersburg Academy. In 1915 he joined the faculty of the University of Cincinnati as an English literature professor. In 1944 he retired from the University of Cincinnati and returned to Pennsylvania where he settled in Paxtang, Dauphin County. At this time Cummings became known as a historian, publishing a biography of the cleric Richard Peters and a portrait of the Scotch-Irish settlers in central Pennsylvania.

About 1948, he began working as a consultant for the Division of Public Records (now known as the Pennsylvania State Archives) in the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission as a consultant, a position he would hold until 1954. He was responsible for helping the PHMC identify archival sources around the Commonwealth with records relating to early transportation systems, i.e. highways, railroads and especially canals. With Cummings' assistance, the PHMC acquired for the State Archives many valuable manuscript collections, blueprints and maps. Based upon his historical research, Cummings published a seminal archival work on Pennsylvania's canals: Pennsylvania Board of Canal Commissioners' records with allied records of canal companies chartered by the Commonwealth. He also published other books such as James D. Harris, canal engineer: notes on his papers and related canal papers, Pennsylvania Canals, Song of a River, and Allegheny Portage Railroad as well as numerous journal articles. Other published works include a biography of the cleric Richard Peters and Scots Breed and Susquehanna, a portrait of Scotch-Irish settlers.

After leaving the PHMC Cummings worked briefly in the Bureau Land Records of the Pennsylvania Department of Internal Affairs. He was active in various professional groups such as the American Association of University Professors, the Foreign Policy Association, the Pennsylvania Historical Association and the historical societies of Cumberland and Dauphin counties. Hubert M. Cummings died in Camp Hill, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania in 1963. His papers are organized in two series: Author's Manuscripts, 1947-1947 and Staff Historian, 1947-57.


Boxes 1 & 2

  • State-Owned Canals in Pennsylvania, n.d. Long form, In Boxes 1 and 2
  • The Pennsylvania Canal, 1954-1955, Short form, In Box 2

Articles and Pamphlets


Box 3

Arranged alphabetically by title

  • "The Allegheny Portage Railroad," manuscript of 31 pp., leaflet printed by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 4 pp.
  • "The Allegheny Portage Railroad, Built, 1831-1834, Operated, 1834-1857," manuscript of 27 pp.
  • "The Earlier Railroads of Pennsylvania," manuscript of 24 pp.
  • "The Earliest Plan for a Passenger Railroad," incomplete manuscript, 51 pp.
  • "Elder Woodruff's Day on the Allegheny Portage Railroad, manuscript of 6 pp.
  • "Ellen Matilda (Orbison) Harris," manuscript of 59 pp.
  • Harrisburg: Pennsylvania's Capital City, leaflet printed by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 4 pp.
  • "James D. Harris, Canal Engineer, and His assistant, William B. Foster, Jr.," manuscript of 22 pp.
  • "James D. Harris, Canal Engineer: Notes on His Papers and Related Canal Papers," reprint from Pennsylvania History, Vol. XVIII, No. 1 (1951), 31-45
  • "John August Roebling and the Public Works of Pennsylvania," manuscript of 78 pp.
  • "Lafayette Rides By," manuscript of 3 pp.
  • "Modest Proposal of John August Roebling," manuscript of 12 pp.
  • "Pennsylvania: Network of Canal Ports," manuscript of 13 pp.
  • The Pennsylvania Canals, leaflet printed by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 4 pp.
  • "Pennsylvania Canals-Thumb Nail Sketches," manuscript of 100 pp.
  • Pennsylvania State Houses and Capitols, leaflet printed by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 4 pp.
  • "Saga of a Timber-Bridge Builder: Theodore Burr to Reuben Fields, February 26, 1815," introduction and notes by Hubertis M. Cummings, manuscript of 50 pp.
  • "Stephen Hills: Builder of Two Capitols," manuscript of 16 pp.
  • "Theodore Burr and His Bridge across the Susquehanna," manuscript of 50 pp.



Box 3

Arranged chronologically

  • "Some Notes on the State-Owned Columbia and Philadelphia Railroad." Typed 14 pp. Delivered Pennsylvania Historical Association, Dickinson College, Carlisle, Oct. 26, 1947.
  • "Delaware Division Canal." Handwritten notes, 21 pp. Delivered, Point Pleasant, Delaware River Protective Association, Nov. 24, 1950.
  • "New York Canals and Pennsylvania Canals." Handwritten notes. 44pp. Delivered Elmira, New York, April 19, 1951.
  • "James Dunlop Harris." Handwritten notes, 21 pp. Delivered, Towanda, April 20, 1951.
  • "Ellen Matilda Harris at the Fronts during the Civil War." Handwritten notes, 4 pp. Delivered, Keystonians, The Dutch Pantry, Lemoyne, Dec. 17, 1953.
  • "North Branch Division of the Pennsylvania Canal." Handwritten notes, 16 pp. Delivered, Lackawanna County Historical Society, Scranton, March 26, 1954.
  • "TV Script for Talk on Canals in Pennsylvania." Notes, List of Maps used, Handwritten and typed 6 pp. Delivered, Harrisburg? n.d.

Staff Historian


General Correspondence


Box 3

Arranged alphabetically by correspondent.

The correspondence is mainly with archivists, historians, curators, colleges, and industrials concerning their archival records. Notable items of interest to environmental historians include:

  • W. K. Cadman correspondence of 1954 is notable for discussion of petroleum titan Samuel Martin Kier and his refineries. Cadman is the author of a paper on Kier.
  • Charles A. McCarthy correspondence, May 12, 1954 about the development of the Pennsylvania Canal in the Pittston area.
  • S. K. Stevens letter, February 15, 1954 about Samuel Martin Kier.
  • Research Notes, 1951. In Boxes 4 and 5 topics include: Ellen Matilda Harris, John A. Roebling, Moncure Robinson, Stephen Hills, Theodore Burr, State-Owned Canals in Pennsylvania, Other canals
  • "The Pennsylvania Canal," by George R. Frysinger of Lewistown, Pennsylvania. Lewistown Gazette, circa 1903. Rewritten and republished in the Sentinel, 1929 (Scrapbook).
  • "The Pennsylvania Canal," by Richard C. Walton, Harrisburg Patriot, 1939-1940 (Scrapbook).
  • Miscellaneous "canal" articles, 1930-1952


1947-1957, n.d.

Box 5

Cummings collected photographs of canals and bridges during his research at the PHMC. Some photographs include negatives. Many images appeared in publications such as the following:

  • The Canals of Pennsylvania by Theodore B. Klein is represented here by multiple photographs including some of floods.
  • Clark Terry Bridge, etc. Includes photos of bridge, canal boat yard and stream.
  • Columbia and Marietta Area. Includes scenes of river, wharf, canal boats, canal at Henry Clay Furnace and the Columbia-Wrightsville Bridge after the 1896 tornado.
  • Northumberland and Clark's Ferry Towing Path Bridge. Includes images of the Union Canal, the Rockville Bridge over the Susquehanna and Clark Ferry Dam.
  • Theodore Burr and His Bridges across the Susquehanna. Various views of the bridge.
  • Other Bridges. Includes images of bridges over the Mississippi and in the Harrisburg and Northumberland County areas among others.

MG-171 Samuel W. Pennypacker Papers

1703-1916 (bulk 1851-1916)
48 cu. ft.

Governor's papers and private papers of Samuel Whitaker Pennypacker (b. 1843, d. 1916) who served as governor of Pennsylvania 1903-1907. A prominent Philadelphia lawyer, judge, and president of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania from 1900 to 1916, Pennypacker authored more than fifty books and publications including Settlement of Germantown and The Autobiography of a Pennsylvanian. Born in Phoenixville, Chester County, on April 9, 1843, he was descended from Hendrick Pannybakker, a Dutch �migr� who was a surveyor for William Penn. His grandfather, Mathias Pennypacker, served as a member of the General Assembly and president of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad and helped write the state Constitution of 1837. His father, Isaac Pennypacker, was the first burgess of Phoenixville and held a professorship at the Philadelphia Medical College. His mother, Anna Marie Whitaker, came from a family that owned a local ironworks.

In 1862 Pennypacker taught in a one-room schoolhouse in Mont Clare, Montgomery County and in 1863 he enlisted in Company F of Pottstown, 26th Pennsylvania Emergency Regiment during General E. Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania. In 1865 he earned his bachelor of laws degree at the University of Pennsylvania and established his own law practice. In 1866 he was elected president of the Bancroft Literary Union and in 1868 was chosen president of the Law Academy of Philadelphia. In 1886 he was appointed to the Philadelphia Board of Education, admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1887 and in 1889 Governor Beaver appointed him judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Philadelphia. He became president judge in 1897 and was reelected in 1899. During his presidency of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania from 1900 he wrote prolifically on early local and state history, English common law, the Supreme Court, genealogical topics, and did several biographies. He also amassed more than ten thousand volumes in his personal library and self-mastered Latin, French, Greek, Italian, and Dutch. His polished intellect, public experience, and the fact that his cousin was U. S. Senator Matthew Quay, made him one of the most powerful Republicans in Pennsylvania.

In 1902, Pennypacker defeated John P. Elkin, the Republican state attorney general, for the gubernatorial nomination. The Quay and Boies Penrose political machine were accused of buying votes from Elkin supporters, which they denied. In the general election, Robert Pattison, the only Democrat to serve as governor between the Civil War and 1935, sought a third non-successive term after serving 1883-1887 and 1891-1895. Pennypacker, however, picked up the endorsements of veterans, agricultural interests, the popular former governor and Civil War hero James Beaver, and President Theodore Roosevelt, who publicly proclaimed that a Pennypacker defeat would be a "national calamity."

Easily defeating Robert Pattison in the general election, during his tenure he signed into law the Child Labor Act of 1905 that set the minimum age for factory and mine work at fourteen and prohibited most night work. Governor Pennypacker also created the Pennsylvania State Police that quickly earned a reputation for efficiency and integrity, even drawing public acclamations from President Theodore Roosevelt. An ardent conservationist, Pennypacker appointed Joseph Trimble Rothrock as the first commissioner of forestry and as a result of his efforts, half a million acres of land were preserved, twelve thousand acres was set aside for use as game land, tree nurseries were established, and the first school for state foresters was opened at Mont Alto, Franklin County. In 1903 Governor Pennypacker signed legislation creating the Division of Public Records in the State Library and in 1905 also signed legislation authorizing the creation of a State Museum to house the accumulated artistic, historical, and natural treasures of the state. In addition, during his tenure Pennsylvania levied new taxes on out-of-state corporations that mined and exported Pennsylvania coal. This increased tax revenue financed eight thousand miles of paved roads in the state. The Samuel W Pennypacker Papers contain documents about conservation in both the Governor's Papers series and the Private Papers series.

Governor's Papers, 1902-1907


{series #171.2}

  • Agriculture Dept., 1904-1906
  • Game Commissions, Board of, 1904-1906
  • Pennsylvania State College/Agricultural Experiment Station, 1903-1906
  • Valley Forge Park Commission, 1904-1906

For more reports of these agencies see RG 1-Department of Agriculture, RG 39-Pennsylvania Game Commission, and RG 46-Valley Forge Park Commission.

Executive Correspondence

{series #171.4}

Agriculture Dept. folder. In Box 6.

Correspondence deals with protests from farmers, granges, dairy producers, Pennsylvania State College and others regarding proposal to transfer fertilizer analysis from the State Experiment State to Harrisburg.

American Forestry Congress folder. In Box 10.

The folder contains correspondence about the 1905 American Forestry Congress including the "call for congress" and list of Pennsylvania delegates appointed by Pennypacker. Congress agenda listed in the call includes the relationship of irrigation, grazing and mining to public forest lands, the relationship of forests to railroad supplies and formation of national and state forest policy.

American Mining Congress folder. In Box 11.

The folder pertains to congresses held from 1903 to 1906 and contains various materials including:

  • Call for congress meetings, 1903 and 1904
  • List of Pennsylvania delegates appointed by Pennypacker in 1903
  • Letter by James F. Callebreath Jr., August 25, 1906 concerning proposed law creating mine drainage districts.

Isaac B. Brown folder no. 1. In Box 15.

An item of interest is a May 11, 1904 letter suggesting that vacant land not suitable for Forestry Department use be offered for public sale.

Isaac B. Brown folder no. 2. In Box 15.

Item of interest is a February 28, 1905 letter discussing patents for water lots in the city of Erie to be used for a manufacturing plant.

Farmers National Congress folder. In Box 23.

This folder contains congress program, information leaflet about the Congress and list of delegates from Pennsylvania.

Fisheries Commission, W. E. Meehan folder. In Box 24

The folder contains a report and a letter of interest to environmental historians. A report of Commissioner Meehan for 1905 cites an increase in the number of breeding ponds, game fish, sunfish, construction of "fish ways," and salt water smelt in Pennsylvania. A letter dated December 13, 1906 to New Jersey Governor Edward C. Stokes argues for cooperation between New Jersey and Pennsylvania in regulating fisheries on the Delaware River.

Forestry Dept., Robert S. Conklin folder. In Box 24.

Letter, March 22, 1906 to James Williams says 1899 act allows township and borough officials to enforce conservation laws.

Forestry Dept., Mira Lloyd Dock folder. In Box 24.

Correspondence dated 1905 and 1906 about Dock's work on the Forestry Commission is in this folder.

Forestry Dept., Purchase of Land folder. In Box 24.

Here is correspondence dated 1906 about land purchases in Centre, Clinton, Franklin, Lycoming, and Union Counties.

Forestry Dept., Joseph T. Rothrock folder. In Box 24.

An illustrated article, "Work of Tree Butchers," from the annual report of the American Scenic Historic Preservation Society. There is also a letter from Rothrock dated December 2, 1902 suggesting that Pennypacker include the need for a forestry school at Mont Alto in his inaugural address.

Forestry Dept., William A. Stone folder. In Box 24.

A letter dated July 20, 1904 asks permission to drill oil on state land near oil wells drilled earlier by the Standard Oil Company.

Forestry Dept., List of Wardens folder. In Box 24.

A list from 1902 names wardens in Adams, Bedford, Centre, Clinton, Franklin, Huntingdon, Juniata, Mifflin and Potter Counties.

Game Commission, Dr. Joseph Kalbfus folder. In Box 24.

Chief Game Protector of the Game Commission Kalbfus's 1903 commission report notes recent game protection laws and the problems state game wardens have in enforcing them.

Highway Dept., Good Roads Folder. In Box 35.

This folder has mainly correspondence about the 1904 and 1906 "Good Roads" Convention sponsored by the National Good Roads Association. Other interesting materials include:

  • Pennypacker letters appointing convention delegates
  • A copy of a speech by President Theodore Roosevelt at the 1903 convention
  • A copy of H.R. bill 15369 proposing a Bureau of Public Roads in the Agriculture Dept.
  • Letters about the Pennsylvania "Good Roads" bill introduced by William C. Sproul.

J. Horace McFarland folder. In Box 47.

The folder has 1906 correspondence from McFarland and the American Civic Association advocating protection of Niagara Falls.

League of American Sportsmen Folder. In Box 35.

A letter of January 7, 1904 from League President G. O. Shields suggests Pennsylvania delegates for league meeting. Letterhead names league officers and executive council members from Pennsylvania.

Legislation, Good Roads folder. In Box 41.

Of interest is the correspondence of William C. Sproul concerning the Good Roads bill.

Legislation, Mining bills folder. In Box 37.

  • A clipping from the Harrisburg Telegraph of January 24, 1905 entitled "The Dept. of Mines Seeks Legislation," loose pages from the department's 1903 annual report about mine inspection and amending the Anthracite Mine Law.
  • A record of inspection for the Woodward Mine of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Company, 1903
  • A letter dated April 19, 1905 from Deputy Attorney General W. Fleitz on proposed bill creating the Miners' Relief Association.

Legislation, Non-Resident Hunters folder. In Box 37.

Folder has mainly letters about proposed non-resident hunting license law. Letter, April 4, 1903, from U.S. Senator Boies Penrose notes bill has support of Pennsylvania Game Commission.

Legislation, Park System folder. In Box 37.

Here is 1905 Correspondence concerning House Bill 62 which would allow the Fairmount Park Commission to buy land to protect waterways and House Bill 67 which would control advertisements near public parks.

Legislation, Pollutions of Streams Bill folder. In Box 43.

This folder has letters concerning a proposed bill to prevent pollution of Pennsylvania's streams.

Legislation, Protection of Game 1905 folder. In Box 43.

The folder has letters pro and con about a game protection bill. Protesting the bill are the Mooswa Hunting Club of Snyder County, E. Clyde Todd of the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh. Favoring the bill are the Zoological Society of Philadelphia and the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia.

Mines, Dept. of, Berwind-White Coal Company folder. In Box 48.

Complaints to Governor Pennypacker about the company's operations, citing damage to a sugar grove, cemetery, trees, farms, and fish and stream in 1906.

Mines, Dept. of, Harwick Mine Explosion folder. In Box 48.

Correspondence about the January 25, 1904 mine disaster.

National Drainage Conference folder. In Box 48.

The folder includes a call for a conference in Oklahoma City in 1906.

National Good Roads Convention. 2 folders. In Box 48.

A list of Pennsylvania delegates, and correspondence with the National Good Roads Association about the 1903 convention in St. Louis can be found here.

National Irrigation Congress folder. In Box 48.

  • Correspondence with the Congress from 1903 to 1906
  • Copy of President Theodore Roosevelt speech on irrigation in 1903
  • List of delegates appointed in 1903
  • Copy of congress calls for 1903 and 1906
  • Advance copy of convention program of 1904
  • Letter, Mira Lloyd Dock, August 5, 1905 accepting her appointment as a delegate.
  • Report on a canal project on the Columbia River in Washington State circa 1906.

National Rivers and Harbors Congress folder. In Box 49.

The folder contains a call for a meeting of the congress in 1905.

National Wool Growers Association folder. In Box 49.

This folder contains documents about two separate organizations. There is a convention call for wool growers in 1903. There is also a convention call for the National Livestock Association in 1903. In both calls, the issue of forest reserve land is mentioned.

Ohio River Improvement (West Virginia Resolution) folder. In Box 50.

The folder contains a copy of a resolution adopted by the West Virginia state legislature favoring improvements on the Oho and Little Kanawha Rivers. A letter from West Virginia Governor A. B. White suggests that Pennsylvania pass a similar resolution.

Port of Philadelphia Harbor and Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers Improvements folder. In Box 52.

  • Correspondence of the Joint Executive Committee of the Port of Philadelphia about a thirty-foot channel in the Delaware River.
  • Copy of "Report of Hearing Before the Rivers and Harbor Committee of the House of Representatives at Washington, DC, January 12, 1906;"
  • "Thirty-foot Channel From Philadelphia to the Sea: Special Report of the Board of U.S. Engineers With Accompanying Plan, September 8, 1889;"
  • "Memorials to Congress of the United States by the Commercial, Maritime and Trade Interests of Philadelphia (1898, and 1902)."

Topographic and Geologic Survey folder. In Box 59.

A letter of April 11, 1906 from Joseph N. Pew, Chairman of the Pennsylvania Survey Commission proposes the deposit of soil dredged from the bottom of the Delaware River along the Pennsylvania shoreline.

Valley Forge Park Commission, Bills of Equity folder. In Box 60.

Here is documentation about a court suit filed by the Centennial and Memorial Association of Valley Forge alleging improper use of land in Valley Forge.

Valley Forge Park Commission, "History of the Valley Forge Encampment" folder. In Box 59.

The folder contains a typed copy of the manuscript by Henry Woodman written in 1850.

Water Companies Denied Eminent Domain Rights, 1905 folder. In Box 44.

Here are letters from water companies, attorneys and granges about water company rights. There is also a copy of "An Act to Regulate the Granting of Charters to Water Companies."

Water Supply Commission, John Birkinbine, chairman folder. In Box 61.

In a "Memorandum for the Consideration of the Water Supply Commission of Pa. submitted August 29, 1905 by the Chairman," Birkinbine, an engineer, advocates cooperation between Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York State regarding water supplies and prevention of water pollution.

Water Supply Commission, John F. Whitworth, Secretary folder. In Box 61.

A letter of June 21, 1906 with attached summary of the commission's work mentions the controversy in Milford Township, Juniata County over the Clearview Water Company's plan to build a reservoir.

Governor's Private Papers

General Correspondence

1870-1902; 1909-1915

Ashbridge, Samuel H. (Mayor of Philadelphia) folder. In Box 1.

Ashbridge's letter of January 24, 1902 discusses the city of Philadelphia water system and efforts to provide clean water.

Bowen, A. H. folder. In Box 1.

A commissioner of the Valley Forge Park Commission discusses a potential Commission purchase of land from the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad.

"Di-Do" folder. In Box 3.

A Mira Lloyd Dock lettter dated October 27, 1909 seeks the Governor's help with an exhibit on "Forest, Orchard and Garden."

Eames, F. M. (PA State Sportsmen Association) folder. In Box 3.

Eames' letter of February 9, 1909 addresses legislation regulating the killing of pigeons.

MG-181 William A. Stone Papers

4 boxes

William Alexis Stone was born in Delmar Township, Tioga County, April 18, 1846. His father, Israel Stone, was a farmer, and his mother was Amanda Howe, a Presbyterian. Stone's early life was remarkably similar to his predecessor, Governor Hastings. Stone's family was also poor and could not afford to send him to school, so William continued to work on his father's farm.

In August of 1863, following the July victory of the Union Army at Gettysburg, Stone, although not yet of age, ran off with a number of other boys to Harrisburg and joined the volunteer army. However, his father exerted his parental privilege to prevent his underage son's military venture. Stone was discharged and returned home. When he turned eighteen he again enlisted as a private in Company A, 187th Pennsylvania Volunteers, the "Keystone Brigade." Two of the unit's most noted engagements began in June 1864, first at Cold Harbor, Virginia, where another future governor fought, James Beaver, and between June 16 and September 22 during the siege of Petersburg. Promoted several times through the rank of first sergeant, Stone was commissioned second lieutenant on March 10, 1865. Stone was mustered out following the war on August 3, 1865. After the war Governor Hartranft appointed him assistant adjutant general of the Thirteenth Division, National Guard, with the rank of lieutenant colonel.

The cost of an education was still a financial barrier to Stone's family, but the principal of the Mansfield State Normal School, Tioga County, afforded him the opportunity, which he eagerly accepted and graduated with honors in 1868. In October of that year, he was hired as the principal of Wellsboro Academy and taught there while at the same time studying law under the direction of Stephen F. Wilson and Jerome B. Niles. In August 1870 Stone was admitted to the bar and on August 18 of that year he was married to Ellen Stevens with whom he had two children. Ellen died in 1878 and William Stone married Elizabeth White with whom he had six more children.

In 1872, Stone began his political climb to power in Harrisburg when he was appointed transcribing clerk for the state House of Representatives. Two years later he was elected district attorney of Tioga County, but resigned in 1876 to move to Allegheny County. Although he was relatively unknown there, he quickly earned an excellent legal reputation through several court trials. In 1880, noticed by President Rutherford Hayes, Stone was appointed district attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania and reappointed by President Chester Arthur in 1884. In 1886, however, Stone disobeyed President Grover Cleveland's orders to office holders that they avoid campaigning for political candidates. Instead Stone went on the stump for General Beaver. As punishment, President Cleveland removed Stone from office, an action that ironically seemed to improve Stone's public popularity. He resumed his law practice until he was elected to Congress from the Twenty-third District where he served for four terms.

In 1898, Stone made a successful bid for the governorship. Republican political boss, Matthew S. Quay, and wealthy Philadelphia merchant John Wanamaker were embroiled in a feud, but Stone, Quay's choice, prevailed over Wanamaker's candidate, Charles W. Stone (no relation). Stone, with 476, 206 votes; then Stone went on to defeat Democrat George A. Jenks, who had 358,300 votes, and Prohibition candidate Dr. Silas Swallow, who picked up 132,931 votes. During his term in office, Stone received intense criticism for appointing Quay to the U.S. Senate because Quay was indicted for appropriation of state funds. The Senate rejected Quay's interim appointment, but after exerting his powerful influence to gain the Republican senatorial nomination, Quay won election to Congress.

One of Stone's leading accomplishments as governor of Pennsylvania was to eliminate a three million dollar debt that had been hanging over state government. On February 25, 1902, Philadelphia architect Joseph M. Huston was awarded a commission to design a new state capitol building to replace the older one that burned down in. 1897. Huston completed the new Pennsylvania state capitol during the Pennypacker administration. After leaving office, Stone joined his son Stephen in a law practice. He later served as prothonotary of the state Supreme Court in 1915 and the state Superior Court in 1916. William A. Stone died on March 1, 1920. He is buried in Wellsboro Cemetery, Tioga County.

The papers of Governor Stone include the following: minutes (College and University Council), 1899, 1 folder; reports, including those of the Department of Agriculture, attorney general, Banking Department, factory inspectors, Forestry Department, Game Commission, Department of Insurance, Department of Internal Affairs, Board of Public Charities, superintendent of public instruction, Valley Forge Park Commission, and Bureau of Mines (concerning the Johnstown Mine Disaster of 1902), 1899-1903, .6 cu. ft.; correspondence (including campaign and pre-inauguration, 1898-99), 1898-1903, 1.3 cu. ft.; proclamations, 190l, 1 folder; and addresses, 1901, 1 folder.

The correspondence touches on such subjects as the coal and iron police; strikes in the anthracite coal fields and the use of the National Guard; the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission; the election of U.S. senators by popular vote; and various matters pertaining to state related correctional, educational, and health (e.g., State Board of Health) operations and facilities.

Specific materials relating to the environment are found in the Reports and the Executive Correspondence series.



Box 1

  • Agriculture, Dept. of, Dec. 11, 1902. folder. Report for 1901 & 1902.
  • Forestry Dept., Dec. 1, 1902 folder. Report for 1901 & 1902. Forestry chief Joseph T. Rothrock chronicles the progress made since formation of the department such as the Mont Alto trees nursery that grows young white pine, chestnut, and black walnut trees. He also suggests establishing of a school of forestry, circumscribing state forest land to block trespassers, and more forest reservation land.
  • Game Commission, Dept. of, 1902 folder. 1902 report by Board of Game Commissioner Joseph Kalbfus cites enforcement problems with the 1901 non-resident hunting license law, the need to ban dogs from deer hunting areas, control of forest fires, and establishing game refuges on state land.
  • Johnstown Disaster, July 28, 1902 folder. Letter of Bureau of Mines chief James E. Roderick gives report of mine inspectors on Cambria County mine explosion which killed 112.

Box 2

Valley Forge Park Commission folder. Contains reports for the years 1900, 1902-1903.The 1900 report proposes acquisition of adjacent acres to expand the park. The 1902 report says land is needed for a road contiguous with the park. The 1903 report is a financial statement showing expenses and revenues.

For related records see RG-1, Dept. of Agriculture, RG-6, Dept. of Forests and Waters, RG- 39 Pennsylvania Game Commission, and RG-46, Valley Forge Park Commission.

Executive Correspondence


Box 2

  • Agriculture, Dept. of, 1898-1899, Forestry Div., 1899. folder. March 3, 1899 letter from Joseph T. Rothrock asks Governor to proclaim Arbor Day in 1899.

Box 3

  • Forestry Dept., 1902 folder. Letter of Dec. 15, 1902 from W. W. Morgaride thanks the Governor for expanding forest reservations in the Commonwealth.
  • International Mining Congress folder. Here is a list of delegates appointed to the 5th annual Congress in 1902. There is also a copy of the official call for the congress.

Box 4

  • Pennsylvania Forestry Association folder. Folder has a copy of a Jan. 27, 1899 resolution passed by the association urging the governor to complete appointments to the Forestry Commission.
  • Arbor Day folder. The folder contains a copy of the Arbor Day proclamation, March 29, 1901 by Governor Stone.

MG-185 Harmony Society Papers

303 cu. ft.

(The original Harmony Society Papers have been transferred to Old Economy Village, Ambridge, Pennsylvania. To make arrangements to view the original records contact the Site Administrator.)

The Harmony Society was founded in 1805 by Johann Georg Rapp. (1757-1847), a farmer and vinedresser born in Iptigen, Germany. Rapp and his followers believed in refashioning their lives around their vision of early Christian communalism during the first centuries of the Christian era. They established their first community called Harmony in the Connoquenessing Valley of Butler County in 1805 where all property was held in common and, in 1807, the group also adopted the practice of celibacy. A small cloth factory was established in 1806. This was followed by a saw mill, tannery, distillery, vineyards, and a two-story hotel.

In 1814, the Society sold the property in Butler County and founded New Harmony in Posey County, Indiana where they erected even larger factories. In 1824 the members returned to western Pennsylvania and established the village of Economy in Beaver County where Rapp died in 1847. Under the trusteeships of Romelius L. Baker (1847-1868) and Jacob Henrici. (1868-1892), the Society became involved in real estate speculation in Beaver Falls, construction of the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad, established the Economy Savings Institution and Economy Brick Works, and operated the Economy Oil Company, Economy Planing Mill, and Economy Lumber Company. Following litigation by heirs, the Harmony Society was dissolved in 1905 and seventeen structures comprising Old Economy Village were acquired by the Pennsylvania Historical Commission in 1919 for use as a historic site. Most of the archival records thereafter came into the possession of John S. Duss and Susanna C. Duss, the last trustees and were employed by John Duss to write The Harmonists: A Personal History. (1943). The Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania took custody of part of the records in 1931 and 1933 and the balance were sold to the Pennsylvania Historical Commission in 1937.

This manuscript group has been transferred to the PHMC's Old Economy Village Historic Site. However, most but not all of the materials are on microfilm and can be viewed at the Pennsylvania State Archives. For related records see the John S. Duss Papers. (MG-310), Old Economy Village Collection. (MG-354), Karl Arndt Collection of Harmony Society Materials. (MG-437), Knoedler Family Collection. (MG-330), and Henry Mohn Family Collection. (MG-332), which have also been transferred to Old Economy Village.

Environmental materials of the Harmony Society Papers on microfilm are found chiefly in the series General File, Business File: Domestic and Handicraft Industries, Subsidiary Records: Economy Oil Company and Reference Literature: Monetary.

General File

Thermometer Books (Economy, PA)

1839-1843, 1845, 1847-1848
(microfilm roll 2621)
{series # 185m46}

The series is subtitled "daily and monthly reports of weather." The books contain statistics such as the amount of rainfall and snow; general daily observation, i.e. direction of wind and temperatures. The books also have notes on the climate's effect on crops, i.e. "cherry trees in bloom."

Business File: Domestic and Handicraft Industries

Field and Meadow Book

(1 volume; microfilm roll 2538)
{series #185m235}

In German. Contains a list of names and farm acreages and a record of animal births.

Record of Crop Yields

(2 volumes; microfilm 2538)
{series #185m262}

In German.

Record of Farm Produce

(1 volume; microfilm roll 2548)
{series # 185m264}

In German

Subsidiary Records: Economy Oil Company

Around 1860, the Harmony Society came into possession of 6,000 acres of timberland in Warren County, Pennsylvania near Tidoute. In 1860 oil was discovered in the area and the following year the Society drilled several wells on the property. The oil industry in Warren County was a lucrative business for the Society from 1861 to 1892. The documents listed below in this collection record the history of the Economy Oil Company.

Daily Measurements of Oil

(2 volumes; microfilm roll 2557)
{series #185m343}

Daily Oil Reports (Economy File)

1862-1864, 1872-1875.
(2 volumes; microfilm roll 2557)
{series #185m344}

Daily Oil Reports (Tidioute File)

1864-1869, 1872-1879
(4 volumes; microfilm roll 2557)
{series #185m.345}

Daily Oil Reports, 1864-1872

Bills Receivable Book NO. 5E, 1825-1838.
(1 volume; microfilm roll 2557)
{series #185m.346}

Minutes of the Economy Oil Company


Society Bills Receivable Book

(1 volume; microfilm roll 2551)
{series #185m.353}

There is an index of alphabetical names or topics.

Oil Shipment Memorandum Book

(1 volume; microfilm roll 2556)
{series #185m.354}

Data provided includes depth of well and number of barrels shipped.

Table for Quantity of Oil Stored in Tanks

(1 volume; microfilm roll 2557)
{series # 185m.357}

Subsidiary Records: The Union Company

The Union Company Oil Runs

(2 volumes; microfilm roll 2558)
{series #185m.454}

The volumes are prefaced by an alphabetical index of names. Data recorded includes name of original lessee, operator, district number, date, well, tax, pipeline steam temperature, and number of barrels.

Subsidiary Records: Tucabe Gold Mining Company

Minutes (Tucabe Gold Mining Company)

(1 volume; microfilm roll 2558)
{series #185m.455}

Reference Literature: Monetary

Manufacture of silk was done on a small scale from 1826 to 1838 at Old Economy. Silk can be made from several species of silkworm, the most common of which is known as Bombyx mori. It feeds entirely on the leaves of the mulberry tree. Mulberry trees were imported from Europe and planted around the town. The Economy silk industry was widely known until after 1852 when silk-growing was abandoned because the Harmony Society could not compete with foreign manufacturers. The literature collected here recalls the Society's legacy in silk-making.

Journal of the American Silk Society and Rural Economist

(5 volumes)

The journal was published in Baltimore, Maryland.

  • January 1839, vol. 1, no.1
  • January/February 1841, vo1. 3, nos. 1-2
  • March 1841, vol. 3, no.4
  • April 1841, vol. 3, no.5
  • May 1841, vol. 3, no. 5.

Burlington Silk Record

(3 volumes)

The journal was published in Burlington, New Jersey.

  • January 1842, vo1. 2, no.1
  • September 1842, vol. 2, no.5
  • April 1843, vol. 4, no. 3
  • "The Silk Question Settled: Testimony of One Hundred and Fifty Witnesses; Report of the Proceedings of the National Convention of Silk Growers and Silk Manufacturers, Held in New York City, Oct. 13th and 14th, 1843" (Boston: T. R. Mavin, 1844)

Silk: Devoted to the Interest of the Silk Culturist and Manufacturer

(1 volume)

This is the official journal of the Silk Culture League of America.

  • November 1903, vol. 1, no. 9.

MG-190 James H. Duff Papers

86.4 cu. ft.

A native of Mansfield (now Carnegie), Allegheny County, James H. Duff (b. 1883, d. 1969) graduated from the University of Pittsburgh Law School, 1907. A delegate to the National conventions of the Republican Party, 1932, 1936, 1940, and 1948, he was Pennsylvania's attorney general, 1943-47; the Commonwealth's governor, 1947-51; and U. S. senator from Pennsylvania, 1951-57.The James H. Duff Papers are divided into two groups: Governor's Papers, 1947-1951 and Attorney General's Papers, 1943-1947

Governor's Papers


Reports, .5 cu. ft.; subject file, representing nearly all of the Commonwealth's departments, boards, and commissions, 41 cu. ft.; general file, 18 cu. ft.; legislative file, 15.5 cu. ft.; campaign materials, .1 cu. ft.; articles, .1 cu. ft.; cartoons, .1 cu. ft.; photographs, 1 cu. ft.; scrapbooks, 15 vols.; appointments, commissions, proclamations, and miscellaneous items, .5 cu. ft.

Papers relate to such matters as agriculture; banking; bridges and transportation systems; business, commerce, labor, and industry (coal mining, iron and steel); correctional institutions; courts, police, and legal involvements; forest and wildlife conservation; higher education; historic and military sites; hospitals and medical care; hunting and fishing; insurance; the National Guard; public utilities; public works; relief and welfare; rivers and streams; and taxes.

The Attorney General's Papers, 1943-1947 consists of the following: subject file, 2.5 cu. ft.; general file, .3 cu. ft.; campaign files, 2.5 cu. ft.; articles and addresses, .1 cu. ft.; and photographs, .1 cu. ft.

General Correspondence


Carton 1, "A-Ag" folder

  • Letter, Eldon H. Ackley to Duff, April 21, 1947 concerning conservation recommendations made by the Tioga County Consolidated Sportsmen's Association.
  • Correspondence with Dept. of Forests and Waters Secretary Milo F. Draemal during summer of 1947 on stream clearance of Slippery Rock Creek in Butler County.
  • Letters dated 1949 on controversy about enforcement of fishing laws involving Pike County and citizens of New Jersey.
  • Letter, August 16, 1949 from Royal Horticultural Society, United Kingdom, that protests proposal to convert Philadelphia's Gladwyne Gardens into impounding basin.
  • Letter, Secretary of Agriculture Miles Horst to Duff, October 10, 1950 on outbreak of oak wilt in Mifflin County.
  • Article, "The Pa. Dept. of Agriculture Serves Farmers and Consumers" by Miles Horst, Pennsylvania School Journal, January 1950 issue.
  • Letter, April 9, 1949 from the Chester County Flower Growers' Association to State Senator George B. Scarlett about the florist industry in Pennsylvania.

Carton 1, "A-J" folder

  • Publication, circa 1947 or 1948 by the American Forestry Association: "A Program for American Forestry."
  • Letter, January 6, 1948, from American Forestry Association executive director Ovid Butler, announcing Duff's election as vice president of the association.
  • Article:"Timber? Ask Your Forester" by Stuart Rose, Saturday Evening Post, November 27, 1948.

Carton 1, "All-Am" folder

  • Copy of speech-"Development Plans for the Delaware River Significance of Integrated Water Project"-by James H. Allen, executive director, Interstate Commission on the Delaware River Basin (Incodel), May 23, 1950.
  • Letter from Elwood J. Turner, chairman of Incodel to U.S. Senator Edward Martin, April 25, 1947 about establishing a Forest Research Experimental Center in Pennsylvania.
  • Correspondence of Eugene V. Allison Sr., executive secretary, Susquehanna River System Flood Control, in March 1950 on flood control.

Carton 6, "F" folder

  • Correspondence of 1947 to French from Reading Public Library on pollution of Wyomissing Creek in Berks County.
  • Glenn V. Brown to French, October 28, 1948 on small dam sites in Greene County.
  • Charles A. French, Commissioner of Fisheries to Duff, January 16, 1950 on Incodel.

Carton 7, "Fo" folder

  • Publication, "Flood Control Division-Stream Clearance Projects Undertaken Since Jan. 1, 1947," by the Department of Forests and Waters.
  • Correspondence between Duff, Milo F. Draemal and Harrington Adams in September 1947 on French Creek State Park.
  • Secretary of Forests and Waters Milo F. Draemal to Duff, August 17, 1950 on Incodel.

Carton 7, "Gab-Gar" folder

  • Letter, Game Commission executive director Seth Gordon to Duff, July 14, 1947 concerning leasing of oil and gas rights for game lands in Erie and Warren counties.
  • Correspondence, 1949-1950 with Game Commission regarding a school of conservation at Brockway, Jefferson County.

Carton 8, Highways, Dept. of, Folder #1

  • Chart of the "Forestry Road Program" for the years 1949-1950 and 1950-1951 giving project #, superintendent district #, route, county miles, and name of road.

Carton 9, International-Interstate Com Folder

  • Letter, November 21. 1949 James H. Allen to Duff noting Penn State Agriculture Extension's opposition to the Interstate Commission on the Delaware River Basis' (Incodel) creation of soil districts.
  • Correspondence of ICC, June-October 1947 on the Electric Power Co. of New Jersey's request to build dams and reservoirs in the Delaware River.
  • Letter, February 20, 1947, Allen to Duff says New Jersey's governor will discuss river pollution with Incodel.
  • Letter, October 8, 1947, Allen to Duff concerning pollution of the Delaware River
  • Letter, July 8, 1948, Allen to Duff proposing a geologic and hydrologic survey of ground water beneath the Philadelphia-Camden, NJ region.
  • ICC 1948-1950 correspondence about Incodel's activities.
  • Various Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) letters dated 1949 discuss acquisition of abandoned Pennsylvania Railroad tracks by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission.
  • Map, "Lyons Run Branch Pennsylvania R.R. Proposal to Be Abandoned," c. 1949.
  • Copy of the Pennsylvania Railroad application to the ICC to secede land to the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, c. 1949.
  • Blueprint, "Lyons Run Branch, Saunders, Pa. Highways in Vicinity," c. 1949.
  • Letter, March 15, 1950 from Incodel secretary James H. Allen to the Federal Power Commission criticizing proposed hydroelectric developments on the Delaware River.
  • Letter, November 14, 1949 from T. J. Evans, chairman, Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission concerning the Pennsylvania Railroad's Lyons' Run Branch tracks.

Carton 9, "Interstate, O-Iv" Folder

Public Law 435 of 1941 enabled the Commonwealth to join the Interstate Oil Compact, a conservation group. The governor represents the Commonwealth in this organization. Documentation about the Interstate Oil Compact includes the following:

  • Correspondence with James H. Duff from 1947 through 1950.
  • Draft of "An Agreement to Extend the Interstate Compact to Conserve Oil and Gas, Feb. 1, 1947."

Carton 11, "Lad-Lan" folder

Here are several letters from Grover C. Ladner, president, Schuylkill Valley Restoration Association and chairman, Pennsylvania Conservation Committee, 1947-1949 regarding conservation of the Schuylkill River.

Carton 11, "Le-Lef" folder

  • Press release from the Governor's Office, May 26, 1949 announcing Governor Duff's signing of bill authorizing acquisition of the Babcock Estate in Somerset and Bedford Counties.
  • Letter, June 24, 1949 from L. J. Bowker of the Western Pennsylvania Safety Council to Milo F. Draemel, chair, Pennsylvania Sanitary Water Board about stream pollution in Churchill Borough, Allegheny County.
  • Letter, June 29, 1949 from Ross E. Blodgett, chief, Allegheny County Institution District about dead fish in stream in Mayview, Allegheny County.
  • Correspondence of Ross L. Leffler, president, Pennsylvania Game Commission, 1948-1949, discusses the Babcock Estate as recreation area.
  • Blueprint map, "Babcock Lumber Co. Purchase Official Survey," December 3, 1938 by Pennsylvania Dept. of Forests and Waters.

Carton 11, "Los-Ly" folder

  • Press release from the Governor's Office, October 4, 1949, proclaiming Arbor and Bird Days and Conservation Week in Pennsylvania. Spring Arbor/Bird Day is to be observed on April 9, Joseph T. Rothrock's birthday.
  • Copy of March 1, 1949 plan by Leo A. Luttringer, Game Commission: "Suggested Plan of Cooperation between the Dept. of Public Instruction and the Various State Conservation Agencies."

Carton 12, "Mai-Man" folder

  • "A Statement by Richard Maize, Secretary of [the Dept. of] Mines, of Work done on the Mine Sealing Program�" cites activities in Clarion, Clearfield, Elk, Sullivan and other counties.

Carton 12, "Marts-Mat" folder

There are various letters from William D. Mason of the Sun Oil Company and member of a Three-State Committee on the Delaware Canal dated 1949-1950.

Carton 12, "McD-McF" folder

The correspondence of J. Horace McFarland from 1949 to 1950 addresses various topics including

  • Frederick Law Olmstead
  • forest cover
  • Pennsylvania Parks Association
  • Role of state nurseries in supplying trees for forest planting.

Carton 13, "Morr-Mosk" folder

  • Copy of "Resolutions to be submitted at 17th Annual Meeting [of the Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen's Clubs], Harrisburg, Pa., Feb. 13 and 14, 1948.
  • Copy of "Official County Federation Names Affiliated with the Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen's Clubs," c. 1947.

Carton 15, "Por-Pow" folder

The item of interest in this folder is the correspondence of Mrs. Humbert Bolton Powell, a conservation leader of her day. She was president of the Conservation Council of Pennsylvania, a member of Penn's Woods Committee of the Bowman Hill State Wild Flower Preserve at Washington Crossing Park in Bucks County, the chairperson for Eastern Region Conservation of the Garden Club Federation of Pennsylvania and executive secretary of Flowers for the Flowerless, Inc. The correspondence here from 1947 to 1950 reveals her commitment to conservation.

  • Letter, May 3, 1947, Powell to Duff, about soil conservation districts.
  • Minutes of the annual meeting of the Garden Club Federation of Pennsylvania, May 11-12, 1949.
  • Letter, May 12, 1949, Powell to Duff, concerning Bowman's Hill State Wildflower Preserve.
  • Annual report of the President of the Conservation Council of Pennsylvania, May 23 1949.
  • Letter, October 23, 1950, Powell to Duff, stating the Conservation Council is writing letters to Congress urging federal help in cleaning up the Schuylkill River.
  • Letter, March 26, 1950, Powell to Duff, commenting on the "conservation area" at the Philadelphia Flower Show.
  • Conservation Report of the Eastern Region of the Conservation Council, 1949-1950 written by Powell. Powell thanks Duff for backing the Clean Streams legislation.

Carton 15, "Q-Ree" folder

The correspondence of Albert H. Redels, president, Germantown, Mount Airy and Chestnut Hill Improvement Association, 1947-1950 deals with a proposed extension of Roosevelt Boulevard in Philadelphia.

Carton 16, "S-San" folder

A 1949 letter from Tesa Coal Company president H. B. Salkeld requests permit to change the channel of Little Connoquinessing Creek in Butler County.

Carton 16, "Sta" folder

Here is the correspondence dated 1947-1948 of John K. Stauffer of the City Planning Commission in Reading, Berks County. It pertains to the Schuylkill Navigation Company.

Carton 17, "Su-Sy" folder

Letter, February 2, 1948 from Duff to E. M. Swinger of the Izaak Walton League of America, compliments League's conservation work.

Carton 17, "U-United" folder

  • 1947 correspondence of William K. Ulrich pertaining to renaming Clearfield Nursery in Clearfield County after state forester William F. Dague.
  • Letter, July 29, 1947 from H. C. Ulma of the Conservation Society of York County urging hard surfacing of dirt road from Route 124 to Indian Steps Museum.

Subject File


Carton 2, Anthracite Control Production folder

The folder contains statistics compiled by the Dept. of Commerce from 1947 to 1951 listing the names of coal companies and their commercial production in net tons.

Carton 12, Capitol Park Extension Commission Reports folder

The folder has annual reports of the commission for 1947 and 1948. The correspondence with architect William Gehron, Harrisburg mayor Claude R. Robins and others pertains to the expansion of Commonwealth Avenue and Forster Street in Harrisburg.

Carton 12, Big and Little Inch Pipelines, 1947-1948 folder

During the Second World War, "big" and "little" inch pipelines were laid in Pennsylvania by the federal government for transporting oil. After the war in 1947, the Federal Power Commission was considering a request from a Texas-based company to use these pipelines for natural gas. The commission's action prompted a state-wide controversy with some companies in need of natural gas and with anthracite mining companies and towns opposed to it for fear of destroying the anthracite industry. This folder has documents exploring this controversy including:

  • A copy of the petition of Trans-continental Gas Pipeline Company of Longview, Texas to the Federal Power Commission in 1946.
  • A report, "Appalachian Area Conference Data-'Big Inch' As Compiled by Federal Power Commission Staff, June 3, 1947.
  • Correspondence to the Governor both for and against the natural gas pipeline.

Carton 13, Conservation, A-Z, 1947-1948 folder

Available in this folder are reports on soil conservation districts, correspondence with conservation organizations and miscellaneous articles.

  • Soil conservation reports for districts in Adams, Clinton, Franklin, Fulton, Northumberland and Potter counties.
  • Correspondence of conservation organizations such as the Pennsylvania Conservation Committee, the Altoona Wildlife Conservation Club, the Ecologists Union and the Izaak Walton League of America.
  • Miscellaneous articles: "The Low Down on the Slow Down in Soil Conservation" by Robert A. Harrier, January 15, 1948 and
  • Penn State's Share in the Conservation of Pennsylvania's Resources" by James Milholland, February 14, 1948.

Carton 13, Conservation, Governor's Data, n.d." folder

  • Speeches by Duff, "Conservation of Natural Resources," "Necessity for Broad Postwar Project of Conservation," "Where From, Johnny Appleseed? What Do, Johnny?"
  • Articles by others: "Mining with Molecules" by W. B. Proudfoot; "Pennsylvania's Conservation Program" by State Planning Board, Dept. of Commerce; "The Soil Conservation Service in Pennsylvania" by Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
  • 10 b/w photographs, c. 1947 of soil scenes in Pennsylvania.

Carton 13, "Delaware River Canal, 1950" folder

The folder has correspondence about pollution of the canal at New Hope, Bucks County as well as some b/w photographs of the canal.

Carton 14, Donora Smog, 1948 folder

The folder has the following documentation about the smog in Donora, Washington County in 1948.

  • "Report of the Donora Disaster" by Pennsylvania Dept. of Health.
  • "Progress Report on Investigations as to Causes of Donora Disaster" by Dept. of Health.
  • "Report of Investigation, Borough of Donora, Washington County, Pa."
  • Petitions urging adoption of a state air pollution law.

Carton 14 or 15, "Fire Prevention Conference, 1947-1950" folder

The folder has correspondence, memos, press releases and speeches about Fire Prevention Week.

Carton 14 or 15, "Fish Killing in Allegheny River, 1947" folder

The folder contains correspondence about pollution resulting in dead fish in the Allegheny River.

Carton 14 or 15, "Forest Closing, 1947," folder

Governor Duff's controversial proclamation of October 24, 1947 closing state lands to hunters and fishermen because of a severe drought is the subject of correspondence here.

Carton 16, "Gionbetti-Ercoli Case, 1947 and Gladwyne Gorge" folder

There are letters from conservationists protesting conversion of the Gladyne Gorge Gardens into a silt basin for the Schuylkill River.

Carton 17, "Holy Cross Cemetery Protests, 1950" folder

The folder contains correspondence from citizens opposing the Dept. of Highways' plan to build a connecting road to the Pennsylvania Turnpike through a Harrisburg cemetery.

Carton 17 or 18, "Horse Shoe Trail, 1947-1948, folder

  • Correspondence from conservationists urging state park status for the Horse Shoe Trail is found in this folder.
  • There is also the 1946 American Guide Series booklet on the Horse Shoe Trail, the guide of the Horse Shoe Trail Club and a club newsletter.

Carton 18, Interstate Commission on the Delaware River Basin, 1950 folder

  • Report: "Supplementary Report upon the Port of Philadelphia and Other Harbors along the Delaware River, April 25, 1947."
  • Article: "Look What They're Doing to the Delaware!" by Sidney Shalett, Saturday Evening Post, September 30, 1950.
  • Newsletters of the Commission for August, September and November 1950.

Carton 18? Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin, 1950 folder

  • Reports: Biennial Report of the Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin, 1947-1948;" "Planning for the Future in the Potomac Rive Basin, 1950"; "A Report on Industrial Wastes in the Potomac River Basin, 1950."
  • Newsletters of the Commission, 1947-1950.
  • Publications: "A Guide to Municipal Sanitation, 1949"; "Soil Pollution in the Potomac River Basin, 1949"; "An Industrial Wastes Symposium, 1950;" "The Potomac River Valley, n.d."

Carton 18 Interstate Oil Commission folder

  • Correspondence, 1947-1950 (3 folders)
  • Compact Comments, 1947-1950
  • Minutes, 1946-1947, 1948-1950 (2 folders)
  • Hearings, 1950
  • Publications: Statistical Bulletin, 1946-1949; Quarterly Bulletin, 1947-1950.

Carton 25, Mount Gretna Timber Cutting, 1947-1949 folder

  • Correspondence and petitions from citizens objecting to timber cutting in Mount Gretna by the Pennsylvania Game Commission.
  • Map of state game lands in Lebanon County illustrates areas with trees scarred by shrapnel.

Carton 26, Ohio Valley Sanitation Compact, 1947-1950 folder

The Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission was organized on July 1, 1948. Indiana, West Virginia, New York, Illinois, Kentucky, Virginia and Pennsylvania signed a compact to cooperate in prevention of pollution of rivers, streams and water in the Ohio River Basin. The documents in this folder consist of the following:

  • Correspondence of the Commission, 1947-1950
  • A copy of the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Compact of 1948
  • Annual report of the Commission, 1948-1949
  • A copy of the official call for the 1948 convention of the Ohio Valley Improvement Association
  • Newsletter of the Commission, 1948
  • Speech: "Has Anything At All Been Done to Stop Pollution of the Ohio River?" by Hudson Biery, commission chairman, 1948-1949

Carton 26, "Oil Shortage of 1948" folder

Governor Duff proclaimed a fuel shortage emergency in the Commonwealth on January 9, 1948 and asked citizens to voluntarily reduce their oil use by fifteen percent. Documents here about the fuel shortage include:

  • Correspondence with government officials and oil industry representatives about oil.
  • Report: Fuel Oil Coordinator Office, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Report on Fuel Oil Shortage 1948.

Carton 26, Pennsylvania Angler, April 1947 folder

The folder has two copies of the April 1947 issue of Pennsylvania Angler featuring a February 14, 1947 speech by Duff before the Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen's Clubs.

Carton 29, Public Utility Commission, 1947-1950 folder

  • Correspondence: Letters, February 27 and April 7, 1947 from John Siggins Jr. commission chairman to Duff on the natural gas shortage in Pennsylvania
  • Speech by Suggins, February 21, 1947 before the Federal Power Commission testifying on the natural gas shortage in Pennsylvania. Included are statistical tables and charts on natural gas usage in Pittsburgh from 1945 to 1947.

Carton 33, Slippery Rock Creek Dam, 1950 folder

Correspondence from Butler County citizens asks that the state restore a dam on Slippery Rock Creek.

Carton 34, State Highway and Bridge Authority, 1947-1950

  • Correspondence, 1949-1950
  • Minutes, 1949-1950
  • Reports, 1947-1950

Carton 35, Strip Mining in Pennsylvania folder

  • Correspondence about restoration of land damaged by strip coal mining
  • Report: State Planning Board, Dept. of Commerce, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, "Strip Mining in Pennsylvania" (March 1947)

Carton 36, Tidelands Dispute, 1947-1950 folder

The folder has correspondence, articles and documents pertaining to the U. S. Supreme Court decisions on tidelands in California and Texas.

Carton 36, Tionesta Dam Development, 1947 folder

The folder contains correspondence discussing the creation of a state park in the Tionesta Dam area of Forest County.

Cartons 36 & 37, Turnpike Commission, Valley Forge, 1948-1950 (8 folders)

Correspondence of the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission concerns the agency's proposed turnpike extension road near Valley Forge National Park.

Carton 40, Vine Street Highway, Philadelphia, 1947 folder

The folder has letters protesting the conversion of Vine Street into a surface highway

Carton 41, Water Conservation, Stream Purification & Flood Control, 1947-1951 (10 folders)

Here is general correspondence dealing with legislation and enforcement of state laws regarding water conservation, stream purification and flood control.

Carton 41, Water Conservation, Stream Purification & Flood Control, 1947-1951, Ellen A. Dietrich folder

This folder has correspondence of Dietrich, secretary of the Pennsylvania Conservation Committee.

Carton 41, Water Conservation, Stream Purification & Flood Control, 1947-1951, C. F. Drake folder

Chester F. Drake is division superintendent of the Water Filtration Plant with the Bureau of Water of the City of Pittsburgh. The folder contains

  • Typed manuscripts of papers on water pollution by Drake and others
  • Map of Jefferson County c. 1940 showing towns, state game lands and recreation areas.

Carton 41, War Department, U. S. Engineer's Office, 1947-1951 folder

  • Correspondence with the Bradford District Flood Authority in 1948 regarding flood prevention
  • Letter, R. A. Wheeler to the U.S. Secretary of War, December 13, 1946 about flood control of Dunlap Creek, Fayette County.
  • Memo, War Dept. Corps of Engineers, August 6, 1947 proposes improvement of the Lackawanna River
  • "First Progress Report on the Schuylkill River Project," by the Schuylkill River Project Engineers of Philadelphia, February 28, 1948.

Carton 41, "Waters of the Commonwealth," May 5, 1950 (Scenario for Gov. to check) folder

This is a motion picture script authorized by the Sanitary Water Board. The film discusses the need for and value of water resources, the problem of water pollution and suggestions for preventing pollution.



  • "Port of Pittsburgh Survey. Basic Report. First Phase" by Charles Donley and Associates, 1947.
  • "Interim Report" by Charles Donley and Associates, 1947.
  • "Philadelphia Sewage Disposal Projects: Sewage Treatment Works Existing and Proposed. Includes map and 100 9x 7 photos of construction, 1947-1948.
  • "Engineering Report Western Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike" proposed by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, August 1949.
  • "Turnpike Design, As Developed for the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission" by Capitol Engineering Corp., Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, 1950.
  • "Preliminary Report for the Schuylkill Expressway-Vine Street Extension," 1947
  • "Roadside Rests, Progress Report," April 1946-January 1950. Photos are included.



quot;The Effective Use of Our Water Resources." In: State Government, Utah Governors Conference, July 13-16, 1947. (Also in MG-190, Subject File, Governor's Conference, carton 14)


November 6, 1946-September 30, 1950

There are a total of 15 oversize scrapbooks of clippings from newspapers around the Commonwealth. Some of the scrapbooks contain articles on legislation dealing with environmental issues such as natural gas, hunting and flood control.

Attorney General Official Papers

Subject File

Carton 1, Bituminous Coal Open Pit Mining Conservation Act of 1945 folder

  • Correspondence relating to legislation
  • "Brief in support of the Bituminous Coal Open Pit Mining Conservation Act, Senate Bill No. 183" by Mineral Production Association, Kittanning
  • A copy of the proposed act
  • Diagrams by mining engineers
  • Five b/w photographs showing 1925 restoration of areas in Grove City, Mercer County originally stripped by the Tasa Coal Co.
  • Two b/w photographs depicting coal tracts in Salem Township, Westmoreland County in 1938.

Carton 2, Capitol Park Extension, 1944 folder

The folder contains correspondence with Harrisburg mayor Howard E. Millikin and others about the reconstruction of North Street.

Carton 2, City of Pittsburgh, 1944-1946; City of Philadelphia, 1946

  • 1946 correspondence with the Greater Pittsburgh Parks Association and the Pittsburgh Casting Club on creating recreation areas
  • Sailings from the Port of Philadelphia, December 1, 1946 by the Dept of Wharves, Docks and Ferries, City of Philadelphia. The guide also has names and addresses of shipping companies in Philadelphia and notes on prominent people in the maritime business.
  • "Joint Statement by Attorney General James H Duff and Commissioner Alfred E. Driscoll, November 1, 1946." Duff and Driscoll pledge support for Pennsylvania-New Jersey cooperation regarding the Delaware River and opposition to federal intervention in management of the Delaware.

Carton 2, Raccoon Creek State Park Dam folder

The folder has correspondence with the Dept. of Forests and Waters and other parties about the state park dam in Beaver County, from1942 to 1947.

Carton 2, Pennsylvania Post-War Planning Commission (3 folders)

  • Folder 1 has the following reports: "Recommended State Conservation Program for Pennsylvania, November 15, 1947," "Pennsylvania's Post-War Program for Agriculture, January 13, 1945," "Tentative Report, Recreation for Post-War Planning Commission, February 28, 1945.
  • Folder 2 contains two letters. Duff to Mark S. James, January 22, 1945 discusses conservation legislation; Colin McFarland Reed to Duff, November 17, 1944 advocates the building of dams to create recreational lakes. There is also a report: "Recommended State Conservation Program for Pennsylvania, September 30, 1946.
  • Folder 3 has a copy of "A Recreational Area Survey: Pennsylvania Post-War Commission, Harrisburg, PA, 1945."

Carton 2, Reports, 1939, "Arterial Plan for Pittsburgh" folder

The report was written by Robert Moses in November 1939. It deals with the development of Point Park and other areas of Pittsburgh. It has maps, photographs and drawings.

Carton 2, Preliminary Report to the Philadelphia Water Commission folder

The report is subtitled "A New Water Supply from Upland Sources." Published by the Board of Consulting Engineers of the Philadelphia Water Commission, the report discusses the issues of water supply, water purification and water pollution.

Carton 3, Road Maps, Federal Aid, Lackawanna-York 1946 folder

The folder contains thirty-four maps of Pennsylvania counties from Lackawanna to York. A companion folder containing maps for county names from A to M is apparently missing from Carton 3. There is also an outline of the Department of Highways' construction program for 1946.

Carton 3, Roads and Lakes of Western Pennsylvania, 1946 folder

The folder features correspondence with conservation groups.

Carton 3, Sewage Disposals and Rentals, Allegheny County, 1946, Wilkes-Barre, 1945 folder

  • Report: "City of Pittsburgh, Sewage Disposal Investigations: Report upon Proposed Sanitary Intercepting Sewage Saw Mill Run Drainage Basin, March 7, 1912.
  • Report: "Report Concerning Intercepting Sewage. Sewage Treatment and Disposal" by General Committee on Sewage of the Municipalities of Allegheny County, August 15, 1939
  • Minutes, Solicitors and Engineers of the Various Municipalities in Wilkes-Barre [area], November 19, 1945. The minutes discuss the need for a sewage disposal plant.

Carton 3, Stream Pollution, 1944-1947 (5 folders)

  • Folder 1, Acts, Legislation, Letters, Reports, 1944-1945 has copies of federal bills on conservation and a copy of the Pennsylvania act establishing the Sanitary Water Commission.
  • Folder 1 also has numerous reports, articles and publications. The following are examples of what can be found: Article: "The Truth about Stream Pollution" by Cyrus William Rice, February 20, 1945; "Report of the Ohio River Committee on Ohio River Pollution Survey, April 6, 1945"; Publication, Schuylkill Filth, April 7, 1945 issue. Published by the Schuylkill Valley Restoration Association.
  • Folder 2 contains the correspondence of C. F. Drake, an official with the Bureau of Water, City of Pittsburgh. These are chiefly letters and memos regarding the Loyalhanna Reservoir, Clarion River, Kiskiminetas Creek, Mohawk River and the Allegheny River. The folder has copies of numerous articles and speeches. There are also several maps of the Ohio River Basin Coal Mine fields.
  • Folder 3, Letters Received, 1944-1945, 1947 features correspondence with politicians and conservationists such as William M. Tuck, governor of Virginia, the Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce, State Representative Lambert Caldwalader, the Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen' Club, the Berks County and York County chapters of Izaak Walton League of America and the Crowfoot Rod and Gun Club of Wilkinsburg.
  • Folder 4, Letters sent to companies, 1944-1945 reflects the efforts of Duff to persuade industry to adopt conservation measures. Companies contacted include Republic Steel, McKee Glass, Glidden Company, P. H. Glatfelder, Hershey Food, DuPont, Atlantic Refining, General Electric and Westinghouse.
  • Folder 5, Ohio River Pollution Control, 1944 contains the proceedings of the Delegates Appointed to Negotiate the Ohio Valley Water Sanitation Compact," December 7, 1944.

Carton 3, Vine Street, Philadelphia Demolitions, November 1946 folder

This folder has drawings by the Dept. of Highways for demolitions of Vine Street from 18th Street to Franklin Avenue in Center City, Philadelphia.

Attorney General

General Correspondence

This series is comprised of the general correspondence of the Attorney General answered by him as well as his deputies. The series is arranged alphabetically by name.

Carton 3, "C-D, 1943-1947" folder

  • Letters from Duff to Secretary Dept. of Highways John Y. Shroyer, State Senator M. Harvey Taylor, and George I. Bloom, Governor's Office, all August 10, 1944. Duff's letters are about drilling wells in Hancock County, West Virginia for oil or natural gas.
  • Letter, State Representative George W. Cooper, March 15, 1945 to Duff about stream pollution.
  • Letter, Elwood B. Chapman of the Pennsylvania Park Association, January 30, 1945 to Duff about the concept of eminent domain.
  • Letter, John P. Deck of the Pennsylvania Division of the Izaak Walton League of America, May 23, 1945, to Duff thanking him for his conservation work.

Carton 3, "E-G, 1943-1947" folder

  • Letter, William H. England to Duff, August 11, 1946 and Duff to England, August 11, 1946 concerning garbage dumping in the Borough of Crafton.
  • Letter, George Pfeiffer to Duff, November 19, 1943 complimenting him on his speech to the Friends of the Land, Pennsylvania Chapter.

Carton 3, "H, 1943-1947" folder

  • Letter, R. D. Hetzel, president of Penn State College to Duff, August 22, 1946 and Duff to Hetzel, August 26, 1946. They discuss acquisition of trees for the Dept. of Forests and Waters.
  • Letter, Duff to Ralph D. Hoffman, January 9, 1945, regarding sale of Pittsburgh and West Virginia Railroad land to the Borough of Carnegie in Allegheny County.

Carton 3, "J-K, 1943-1947" folder

  • Letter, Theodore F. Karr to Duff, September 23, 1946 pertaining to the right of way for sewer on Virginia Manor property in Pittsburgh, Allegheny County.

Carton 3, "M, 1943-1947" folder

  • Letter, James E. Malone to Duff, November 19, 1945. Malone compliments Duff on his speech about sewer disposal plants delivered before the Republican Women of Pennsylvania.
  • Letter, Duff to C. A. Mortimer, July 11, 1945 on need for support for stream clearance program.
  • Letters, John G. Muck to Duff, June 8, 1945 and Duff to Muck, June 25, 1945 about sealing of mines on Mill Creek, a trout stream.
  • Letter, Duff to Richard K. Mellon, March 1, 1945 comments on the Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce's opposition to the Ohio River Compact.

Carton 3, "N-R, 1943-1947" folder

  • Letter, Mrs. Herbert B. Powell to Duff, April 3, 1944 discusses conservation work.

Carton 3, "S-T, 1943-1947" folder

  • Letter, Frederick C. Stout to Duff, March 1, 1945 thanks Duff for participating in a conservation forum sponsored by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society.
  • Letter, Duff to Elwood Turner, March 7, 1945 cites Turner's article in the February 1945 issue of State Government: "The Place of the States in the Field of Watershed Development."

Carton 3, "U-Z, 1943-1947" folder

  • Letter, Duff to Western Maine Forest Nursery, September 7, 1943, re flower order for Carnegie Borough Park, Allegheny County.
  • Letter, Duff to Wayside Gardens, October 5, 1943, re flower order for Carnegie Borough Park.
  • Letter, Duff to Uptown Nursery, October 20, 1943, re flower order for Carnegie Borough Park.
  • Letter, Duff to Upton Nursery, November 11, 1943, re flower order for Carnegie Borough Park.



  • "Stream Pollution" by James H. Duff. In: Pennsylvania Angler, February 1945 issue.
  • "Our Vital Duty to Conserve Natural Resources." In: Philadelphia Inquirer, March 25, 1945 issue.
  • "Attorney General Duff Presented Stream Purification Needs." In: Pennsylvania Game News, March 1946 issue



  • Speech: "Stream Cleanup Cannot Be Stopped," by James H. Duff before the Keystone Sportmen's Association, October 1946. It was printed in the October 1946 issue of Pennsylvania Angler.


1944-1946, N.D.

  • One 10x 8 b/w photograph of Duff addressing the Keystone Sportsmen's Association in Harrisburg, October 1946.