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Environmental Resources, Record Groups 1-6

RG-1 Records of the Department of Agriculture

A number of trends and pressures led up to the creation of the Dept. of Agriculture in 1895. In 1851 the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society, one among a group of private organizations touching on farming, was incorporated. The incorporating statute gave the society power to obtain annual statements from county agricultural societies which it recognized and which were, by that recognition, eligible for financial aid from county funds. The county societies at this time were very influential. Their annual fairs exhibited farm products, one of the few ways to achieve public awareness in those days. But they had not cooperated with the private State Agricultural Society. In 1874 the Bureau of Statistics of the Dept. of Internal Affairs was directed to compile agricultural statistics and administer the agricultural laws of the state. These functions were transferred in 1876 when the Board of Agriculture was created. The board's duties were administrative and educational; it was to enforce state farming laws and supervise all local agricultural societies. Each of the county societies recognized by virtue of the provisions of the Agricultural Society Act of 1851 had a representative on the board; since there were more than sixty of these, they prevailed on any issue that went to a vote. State legislation followed soon, enlarging the work the board had to do: Commercial Fertilizer Law - 1879; Butter and Cheese Act - 1883; Animal Disease Control Law - 1887.

Under the board's auspices, public agricultural meetings were held to present essays on agricultural subjects, and these were published in annual volumes entitled Agriculture in Pennsylvania. Until about 1885 the State Society rivaled the board in holding educational sessions. But in 1887 the Pennsylvania Hatch Act enlarged the board's educational function by authorizing it to put on farmers' institutes - periodic public sessions at various locations around the state to teach farming. These remained a function of the board and its successor, the Dept. of Agriculture, until 1920, by which time the Pennsylvania State University's School of Agriculture had become predominant in educating farmers, especially through its extension agent system.

The Board of Agriculture had a nine-member technical staff, including a chemist, a veterinarian, a microscopist, and a botanist, but these were unpaid experts. In 1893, legislation created the Dairy and Food Commissioner's office, the logical extension of the work done by the board's chemist but with enforcement powers. Even though relieved somewhat by the new commissioner, who was an agent of the board, the unwieldy and unpaid board, meeting only four times a year, did not perform its duties effectively.

The 1895 legislation that created the Dept. of Agriculture transferred to it the three basic functions the board had held: law enforcement, education, and prevention of plant and animal disease. But the new agency also had the tasks of forestry and of coordination of farmland valuation for tax purposes. Contrary to the General Assembly's original intention, local interests prevented the old board from being terminated, and it continued to meet once a year until 1918. It still had advisory powers as well as control of the farmers' institutes held in its members' counties, but it was not involved in funding.

Some bureau chiefs under the early Dept. of Agriculture had almost complete autonomy: the Dairy and Food Commissioner, the Commissioner of Forestry, and the State Veterinary. In 1901 responsibility for the State's forests was transferred to the newly created Dept. of Forestry. In 1895, shortly after the Dept. of Agriculture had been created, a State Livestock Sanitary Board had been created on which the Secretary of Agriculture, the State Veterinary, and the Dairy and Food Commissioners sat, in conjunction with the Governor ex officio. The gravity of issuing orders to slaughter diseased animals and of paying the owners compensation justified creating this special commission; its powers were gradually increased over the years so that it began examining some of the milk marketed within the state and condemning bad meat, but its most noteworthy program was the prevention of bovine tuberculosis (begun 1895), a field in which Pennsylvania led the nation. By the late nineteenth century, the chemical composition of fertilizers had progressed to such a point that recognition of dishonestly adulterated fertilizers took expert chemical analysis. To stop dishonest fertilizer sales the state enacted a fertilizer law in 1879, 1901, and 1909, and eventually followed the 1909 statute with more powerful laws in 1956 and 1977.

Even though new bureaus were created subordinate to the Secretary - Bureau of Statistics, Bureau of Chemistry (1907), Bureau of Foods (1909), and Bureau of Markets (1917) - by 1915 it was again time for a major reorganization.

A seven-member Agricultural Commission had been created in 1915 for the purpose of centralizing the Dept.'s and the Sanitary Board's administrations and strengthening the internal authority of the Secretary of Agriculture. This generally made the confusion worse, however, and the commission was abolished in 1919 when Governor William Sproul's administration took office and Frederick Rasmussen was appointed Secretary.

As an enlargement of the concept of exhibiting farm products at county fairs, the State Farm Show in Harrisburg became an annual event after 1917. It coincided with the dept.'s creation of the Bureau of Markets. From 1900 to 1916, private farm societies and organizations had held separate meetings in Harrisburg which included product exhibitions, and the 1917 show was a combined exhibition by corn, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, and woolens associations. In 1921 the show was placed under the State Fair Commission; in 1927 this became the State Farm Products Commission. The present Main Farm Show Building was opened in 1931; the Large Arena was added in 1939.

During World War I (1917-1918), the National Food Administration controlled agriculture and issued sweeping orders regulating production and prices, so much so that the State's Dept. of Agriculture had little to say in matters. Although the federal powers were repealed in 1919, the national farm situation had been altered and Pennsylvania's market for wheat and corn became precarious.

The reorganization of the Dept. of Agriculture in 1919 abolished the Agricultural Commission, the old Board of Agriculture, and the Livestock Sanitary Board. The Livestock Board's powers were transferred to a department in the Bureau of Animal Industry. The dept. now had five other bureaus, each explicitly subordinate to the Secretary: Bureau of Plant Industry, Bureau of Food, Bureau of Chemistry, Bureau of Crop Reporting and Information, and Bureau of Markets. In 1925 the Bureaus of Chemistry and Food were combined.

The first Dog Licensing Act, enacted in 1917, was the result of attacks by dogs on farm animals. Most of the administrative work was assigned to county officials; the Secretary of Agriculture was named merely as overall supervisor. A new law in 1921, however, required the Dept. of Agriculture to carry much more of the administrative burden; a Division of Dog Law Enforcement emerged under the Bureau of Animal Industry. An all time high 902 cases of rabies were reported in 1944, and enforcement measures including killing stray dogs and fining dog owners took place. With the passage of a new Dog Law in 1965, accompanied by a Domestic Mink Act, administrative work increased, and the Bureau of Dog Law Enforcement was created. In the same year the bureau began subsidizing animal shelters and reimbursing livestock and poultry owners whose stock had been destroyed by dogs. Inspection of pet shops and veterinary hospitals followed in 1968. Spaying and neutering were encouraged by the bureau, and in 1973 a Dog Advisory Board was created to bring together the differing views about canines. In 1982 a revised statute was enacted which was based on humane principles, and in 1987 a Rabies Vaccination Law took effect requiring the vaccination of dogs and pet cats that are over three months old. Since the 1980s, it was clear those wild animals - raccoons, skunks, cats, and even foxes and groundhogs - had spread rabies to wandering, unvaccinated domestic pets.

In 1921 the General Assembly enacted a requirement for triennial enumeration of a group of farm related statistics and assigned responsibility to the Dept. of Agriculture. County tax assessors used the resulting statistics which covered much more than production data, but crop and livestock production figures were also gathered. Under this law farm censuses were performed in 1924 and 1927, the results of which are in Record Group 1. In cooperation with the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, the Pennsylvania Dept. of Agriculture began cooperative gathering and publishing of monthly crop and livestock statistics, and this partnership arrangement has continued.

When it began in 1917, the Bureau of Markets was responsible for helping farmers maximize profits from their investments.

Emphasis has always been placed on market analysis and market reporting. In time, the bureau moved into the logically related field of standardization of products as a means of facilitating favorable sales, even though product labeling standards were a function of the Bureau of Food and Chemistry. The Bureau of Markets also engaged in product promotional programs.

Except in the matter of reporting agricultural statistics, it was not until the late 1930s that the federal government's impact on Pennsylvania's farmers came to involve the State's Dept. of Agriculture. In the late 1920s, the federal government's Dept. of Agriculture (hereafter abbreviated USDA) became interested in soil erosion, and after the national impact of the western dust bowl of 1933 the more general term soil conservation became an accepted government policy. In 1937 the General Assembly passed the Soil Conservation District Act, under which farmers in any area of the state could organize a Soil Conservation District by majority vote of the land occupiers. Such a district became a body politic, separate from county government, and could regulate and enforce land use internally. Farmers within the area who ignored the program could be charged with a misdemeanor and fined, although enforcement was never invoked in this state. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service provided planning and technical assistance without cost. By 1940 ten districts had been formed in Pennsylvania. The State's Secretary of Agriculture was involved as a member of the State Soil Conservation Board. Meanwhile, in May 1936, the federal Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act became law. It was the ice, the successor to the 1933 U.S. Agricultural Adjustment Administration Act which had been declared unconstitutional. The New Deal planners now coupled soil conservation with price and production controls in order to qualify under constitutional interpretations. By controlling crop and livestock production national surpluses could be avoided, but the stated purpose of the law was "for the protection of the land resources against erosion, and for other purposes." Direct federal subsidies were paid to bring about soil conservation practices, but these also achieved the economic objective, crop and livestock control. It worked. Even after the impoverishing days of the depression had passed, Pennsylvania farmers were converted to the concept of soil conservation. In 1945, the 1937 State Soil Conservation District Act was replaced by a new act which specified that now districts would be created only by a vote of the county commissioners. Administration of the newly constituted Soil Conservation Commission was within the State's Dept. of Agriculture, and no enforcement provisions were available to penalize resistant farmers. In 1963 new legislation changed the name of the commission to State Soil and Water Conservation Commission. In 1967 the concept of farm soil conservation was extended to the edges of urban areas by additional state legislation. In 1970 the commission was transferred from the Dept. of Agriculture to the Dept. of Environmental Resources.

Under the administrations of Governors Shapp and Thornburgh a new idea to perpetuate existing farm entities and farmer ownership as continuing productive units was adopted. Secretary James McHale took office in 1971 and moved in the direction of saving small and family farms. The Clean and Green Act of 1973 (amended 1980) allowed farm and forest land to be taxed on the basis of its current productivity, rather than its estimated value on the real estate market. The 1981 Agricultural Area Security Law and its 1988 amendment, creating a State Agricultural Land Preservation Board, and the board's administrative staff unit, the Bureau of Farmland Protection, arose. Also, the Agricultural Land Condemnation Approval Board was appointed to minimize the condemnation, for purposes of construction of highways and waterways, of still productive farmlands.

Marketing promotion entered a new phase with the 1961 Apple Marketing Act. By approval of a majority of the apple growers, a legally empowered association was established which regulated market practices and exacted fees from members to be spent on product promotion. In 1968 the Apple Law became the model for a statute allowing the same process to control the marketing of other agricultural products, and nine such associations were created.

The milk producers, however, have repeatedly voted down proposals for such an association. In 1972 the state enacted new milk control legislation which began reciprocal inspection agreements with other states and eliminated local fees and sanitary codes. Pennsylvania's standards were also amended to conform to the Federal Milk Sanitation Code.

The opening of two Dept. of Agriculture laboratories on the Pennsylvania State University Campus, in 1966, initiated a period of cooperation between the university and the dept. on many scientific programs.

Since the passage of the Animal Disease Control Act of 1887, the Dept. (and its predecessor, the Board) have gradually received enlarged powers to eliminate unfit meat and poultry. But these fell short of the inspection of all products sold for human consumption until the Meat Hygiene Act of 1968, which does require inspection of every item. It applies, however, only to producers not subject to the USDA's 1906 Meat Inspection Law or the 1957 U.S. Poultry Inspection Law.

Governor Thornburgh and his Agricultural Secretary, Penrose Hallowell, turned the Rural Affairs Bureau, which had been created in 1971 to extend the Dept.'s role into farm area social affairs, into a second promotional unit - a teammate for the Bureau of Marketing - designated the Bureau of Agricultural Development. Its functions were to promote agribusiness and serve as an advocate for farmers. In 1985, however, Hallowell's successor, Secretary Richard E. Grubb, combined the Bureaus of Markets and Agricultural Development together under the designation Bureau of Marketing Development. The Pesticide Control Act of 1973 involved the Dept. in still another area. This legislation was made dependent on compliance with the Federal Pesticide Control Act. In 1977 the State's Pesticide Advisory Board began to function.

The Dept. of Agriculture has frequently acquired additional duties and functions in areas only indirectly related to farming. The Limited Winery Act of 1968 and the Wine Act of 1972 fell under its administration because the State's grape crop was involved. In 1973 the Bureau of Weights and Measures was transferred from the Dept. of Justice to the Dept. of Agriculture. In 1984 inspection of amusement park rides was added to the same bureau creating the Bureau of Rides and Measurement Standards. The State Harness Racing Commission became part of the Dept. in 1959, except for a brief interlude of independence (1961 to 1963). The State Horse Racing Commission was created in 1967 and became a unit of the dept. in 1982. In 1975 the dept. initiated a "Century Old Farms" recognition program to enhance pride in the symbolic family farm; by 1995 there was a record of approximately 1,700 farms in continuous operation for at least the past hundred years. In 1975 the Dept. also briefly ventured into a program of rural housing rehabilitation. In 1980 a law was passed, protecting farmers from the bankruptcies of those product wholesalers and processing concerns with whom they dealt. In 1981 the Bureau of Donated Food was transferred from the Dept. of General Services to the Dept. of Agriculture. In 1991 the General Assembly enacted a program for agricultural and rural youths which included grants administered by the Dept. of Agriculture. In 1995 the dept. was assigned the duty of inspecting restaurants. With the splitting up, in 1995, of the Dept. of Environmental Resources (into the Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources and the Dept. of Environmental Protection), Agriculture received administrative oversight for Pennsylvania workers engaged in seasonal labor.

Secretary of Agriculture

Under section I of the Act of March 13, 1895, establishing a Dept. of Agriculture, the Office of Secretary of Agriculture was created to administer the activities of the newly created department. The secretary is appointed to a four year term by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate, and is charged with the responsibility to "encourage and promote agriculture and related industries throughout the Commonwealth." This primary responsibility is accomplished through numerous programs and services, mostly mandated by law. These programs and services range from animal and plant disease control and eradication programs, agricultural product inspection and regulatory programs, marketing and agricultural promotional services to grants and subsidies.

Administrative Correspondence

1936-1938, 1941-1956, 1958-1971, 1997-2003.
86 cartons
{series #1.1} (including accessions 2244 and 3998 which are unprocessed)

Arranged alphabetically by the name of the Secretary or subject, and there under chronologically by date of correspondence.

Within this series is correspondence between Secretaries of Agriculture Miles Horst, W. L. Henning, Leland H. Bull, Boyd E. Wolff, Samuel E. Hays Jr. and their staff and the public. Information includes regulations for disease control and the licensing of health officials; codes for building inspection; reports to the secretary regarding insect infestation, livestock, and crop disease; recommendations from inspectors; research data; agricultural statistics; and transcripts of legislation. Also included are budget figures, policy statements, program evaluations, statistics on damage from Hurricane Agnes, departmental reports, contracts and agreements, press releases, publications, newspaper clippings, and occasional photographs. Prior to 1953, the files deal almost exclusively with the Farm Show Commission, except for several folders dealing with contracts and agreements from 1936-1938. In some cases, Correspondence with the Governor and Cabinet Members, 1963-1975 {series #1.2}, are filed within this series. The following list offers examples of what is found within this series.

  • In carton 1 under sub-series "Animal Industry," there is a letter dated June 9, 1960 from Joseph Flagella to W. L. Henning complaining about air and stream pollution cause by waste from the Snowiss Hide and Tallow Company of Altoona.
  • Within in the same carton under sub series "Forests and Waters" is a copy of the "Middle Atlantic Interstate Forest Fire Protection Compact and Enabling Act, October 1953" between Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania and West Virginia.
  • Also within carton 1 there is a December 1952 monthly report to Governor John S. Fine from Miles Horst in which Horst says that 57 percent of all timber trees in Pennsylvania are oaks susceptible to oak wilt.
  • In carton 1 the annual report for 1953 to the governor from Horst mentions the use of copper sulphate and formaldehyde to fight the spread of potato wart.
  • In carton 1 there is a telegram from John C. York of the Eastern Milk Producers Association to Governor John S. Fine about the drought in the state.
  • In carton 4 under sub series "Food and Chemistry" there are various USDA pamphlets circa 1960 aimed at fruit, vegetable, field crops and livestock producers. The pamphlets state that "it pays to use chemicals [on the farm] safely."
  • Within the same carton under sub series "Plant Industry" is a September 2, 1960 report entitled "The protection of public water supplies and other users from toxic insecticides and other chemicals. The report mentions the spill of the insecticide endrin into the Delaware River that resulted in the death of thousands of fish.
  • Carton 4 also contains under sub series "Plant Industry" correspondence from Henning to forester Wilson Wheeler in August 1962 about planting the plant cover crown vetch in refills in strip mining areas.
  • Another letter dated March 28, 1963 from Henning, within carton 4 and addressed to Forests and Waters Secretary Maurice Goddard discusses spraying the chemical DDT on gypsy moths in Pike County.

Correspondence with the Governor and Cabinet Members

6 cartons
{series #1.2}

Grouped chronologically by date of correspondence and there under arranged alphabetically by subject or correspondent.

A record of letters referred to the Secretary of Agriculture by the Governor, cabinet members, committee chairmen, and deputy secretaries. Information found in the records include addresses of cabinet members, their deputies and public information officers; newsletters and columns printed by various commissions; brochures on community planning; outlines for a Consumer Protection Act (1972) and a Bureau of Consumer Affairs; drafts of reports and presentations; proposals for new programs; and lists of the governor's appointments. At times, this series is interfiled with the Secretary's Administrative Correspondence, 1936-1938, 1941-1956, 1958-1971 {series #1.1}.

Executive Office Correspondence File

22 cartons
{series #1.3}

Arranged chronologically and there under arranged alphabetically by subject.

This series contains correspondence, pamphlets, news clippings, and other documentation received by the Office of the Secretary. The files provide information on topics such as the Appalachia Poverty Program, dept. and state budgets, the Dairy Council, the Farm Show complex and activities, the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture, United State Dept. of Agriculture, disaster relief, professional associations, publications, reports, Pennsylvania State University, national conventions, and legislation. Examples of items discussing the environment include the following.

  • In carton 6 in the folder "Flood Disaster Relief," is documentation about the state's Agricultural Disaster Compensation program aimed at victims of flooding in September 1971 in Chester County and people throughout Pennsylvania that suffered in the flooding caused in June 1972 by Hurricane Agnes. Correspondence includes press releases as well as flood expenditure reports from the Governor's Office.
  • Carton 8 contains a folder on organic farming. It features correspondence with farmers, organic farming groups, college and university agriculture teachers and editors of agricultural magazines.
  • Also within the organic farming folder are numerous articles on organic farms such as an article in the December 1973 issue of Crops and Soil entitled "The Basics of Organic Farming," an article on the use of sludge on farms in the 1967 issue of Compose Science and an article in the March 1973 issue of Agrichemical Age that is critical of the Agriculture dept. stance on organic farming.
  • Carton 16 contains folders on flood disaster relief, flood relief forms, "letters of support" or relief payment letters, and "letters of protest" or letters from rejected applicants. Within the folder "flood disaster relief" is a copy of a USDA publication circa 1973: What the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Can Do When Natural Disaster Strikes.
  • The fuel crisis of the early 1970s is the subject of a folder in carton 16. The folder consists of correspondence between Governor Milton Shapp, Agriculture Secretary McHale, and the USD, and a state-wide survey of fuel, feed and fertilizer suppliers.
  • In carton 17 are multiple copies of the publication Eden Ranch: the Organic Consumer Report, the March 23, 1974 issue of Rodale's Environment Action Bulletin and an article advocating organic farming in the March/April 1974 issue of Nutrition Today.

Interdepartmental Correspondence File

9 cartons
{series #1.4}

Arranged alphabetically by subject.

This series contains correspondence and memorandums to and from staff of the Dept. of Agriculture, concerned citizens, business owners, and local government officials. Subjects covered include the Dog Law, animal shelters, animal testing, Farm Show, food safety, product labeling, consumer education, rural development, rural transportation, pesticides, and various agricultural industries. The following are examples of materials found in the folder for land policy within carton seven.

  • "Land Resources Policies and Programs," original report 1971 revised by the Dept. of Community Affairs in 1973
  • "A Land Policy Planning Report, July 8, 1974," produced by the depts. of Agriculture, Commerce, Community Affairs, Environmental Resources, Transportation, and the Governor's Office of State Planning and Development
  • Program and papers of the state-wide conference "Flood Plains: Public Interest Limitations on Private Property, June 26, 1974
  • "Draft, A Land Policy Program for Pennsylvania," Governor's Office of State Planning and Development, August and October 1975

The following are examples of materials found in the Pesticide Advisory Board and the Pesticide Inspectors folders in carton eight.

  • "Notice of Proposed Guidelines for the Development and Submission of State Plans for certification of pesticide inspectors," October 25, 1974
  • " Letter, Governor Milton J. Shapp to Russell E. Train, Environmental Protection Agency July 30, 1974. Shapp requests EPA approval of Pennsylvania's plan to comply with the federal Environmental Pesticide Act of 1972.

Bureau of Farm Bureau

Between 1900 and 1916, farm organizations held their annual meetings in Harrisburg, usually with a display of exhibits. In August 1916, the Secretary of Agriculture, Clark E. Patton, invited agricultural groups to discuss the possibility of a combined farm show and this meeting resulted in the staging of the Pennsylvania Corn, Fruit, Vegetable, Dairy Products and Wool Show on January 23, 1917. To coordinate the many activities involved in producing the annual shows, a State Farm Products Show Committee was created in December 1917. A motion was passed by the Committee in February 1927 recommending that it be reorganized as an agency of the Commonwealth, and that a provision be made for an advisory board to be composed of representatives of participating organizations. Thus, the State Farm Products Show Commission was created in April 1927. The Commission is now responsible for various agricultural and athletic events, as well as numerous types of commercial and trade shows. In addition to the Farm Products Show, it sponsors three other major annual shows: the Pennsylvania All-American Dairy Show (1964-present), the Pennsylvania Livestock Exposition (1957-present), and the Pennsylvania National Horse Show (1947-present). Other events such as the Shrine Circus, Sportsman's Show, Automobile Show, political rallies and basketball games are also supervised by the Commission.

Farm Show Products Commission Minutes

1 carton
{series #1.6}

Arranged chronologically by date of meetings.

Meeting agenda includes financial statements, budgets, building plans, and exhibits. Other issues discussed are the approval of judges for the various contests, entertainers, health regulations for livestock, livestock sales, purchase of new property, parking areas, and prize money awarded.

Bureau of Plant Industry

The Bureau of Plant Industry was established in 1919 when the Bureau of Economic Zoology, which had operated within the Dept. of Agriculture since 1897, was reorganized and renamed. A new organizational structure for the Bureau became effective in December of 1971, and included the following divisions and sections: Entomology Division (Regulatory Section, Survey Section, Taxonomy Section, Pest Management Section); Plant Pathology Division (Survey Section, Diagnostic Laboratory Section, Clean Stock Program Section, Regulatory Section); Botany and Seed Division (Laboratory Section, Seed Certification Section.) At that time, the Entomology Division also assimilated the duties of the Division of Nursery Inspection, which had existed within the Bureau since 1917. Later in 1974, the Division of Feed, Fertilizer, and Lime Control and the Pesticide Program were transferred from the Bureau of Foods and Chemistry to the Bureau of Plant Industry, providing greater expertise in the use of pesticides to more effectively implement the Pennsylvania Pesticide Control Act of 1973. The Bureau is responsible for maintaining and protecting Pennsylvania's agriculture from destructive plant pests and protecting consumers from purchasing low quality plants or plant material due to pest-associated problems. It fulfills this mandate by conducting surveys to detect new or unusual pests, monitoring known pests to determine population levels, providing accurate identification of the species, generating studies of the organism and its relation to other organisms, making available to the public the results of research dealing with the control or management of the pests, and regulating crop growers and nurseries to assure "pest free" or superior quality propagating stock.

Photographic Negative File

1905, 1911-1944
6,469 negatives
{series #1.7}

Arranged numerically by photographic negative number.

This series contains over 5,000 5x7 or 4x5 glass or film negatives created and used by the bureau for technical and publicity purposes. Each image, arranged numerically, is housed in a folder bearing a number and descriptive information. Plants and insects often bear their Latin taxonomic names. A contact print is occasionally filed with the negative. Subjects cover day-to-day activities of the bureau and other bureaus of the dept., special events, animals, insects and plants. Activities and events show staff at work, the Insect Collection Room, exhibits, egg testing, and treating plant diseases at experimental farms and orchards all over the state.

  • Animals include domesticated and wild animals and birds, most native to Pennsylvania.
  • Insects studied are either beneficial or harmful to farm and forest production. Many views are technical studies of an insect at various stages of development: egg, larva and adult. Most are devoted to bees and beekeeping, with views of various apiaries throughout the state.
  • Plants are primarily vegetable, fruit, and nut crops, shown at planting, cultivation, harvesting and processing. Examples are shown of healthy plants and those damaged by the above insects and typical diseases.
  • Miscellaneous subjects include views of pruning and spraying trees in Capitol Park, Harrisburg; orchards owned by Governor William Sproul; farm machinery; greenhouses; flour mills; the town of Somerville, N.J., during a 1920 gypsy moth infestation; the Heinz Tomato Canning Factory, Chambersburg; and "war gardens" cultivated by anthracite and bituminous coal mining families.

Reports & Related Records

5 boxes
{series #1.8}

Arranged chronologically by date of report or date correspondence was received.

This series contains reports and records sent to the director of the Plant Industry Bureau from various depts. and inspectors. Information found includes annual, biennial, and monthly reports, lists of certified greenhouses and nurseries, reports of inspectors, project proposals and evaluations (often with maps and photos incorporated), reports on plant pathology, and drafts of federal and state regulations. The records provide data on insect infestation (Japanese Beetle, Blueberry Maggot, Gypsy Moth) and plant diseases (Dutch Elm Disease, White Pine Blister Bust). Prior to 1923, there are scattered records dealing with introduced pests, historical materials, and general bureau activities. During the 1930s the bureau worked to eradicate potato wart from Pennsylvania farms by using Ammonium Thicyanate to sterilize the soil of host plants. An item of interest found in a folder labeled "Potato Wart and Soil Sampling, 1941,"is an unidentified photo scrapbook, possibly kept by a USDA employee. The scrapbook contains numerous photographs documenting plant industry topics such as greenhouses, soil temperature control tanks, cyantate penetration testing, and the wart eradication project in Onnalinda, Pennsylvania.

Division of Crop Reporting

The Division of Crop Reporting was created in 1924 as a cooperative program of the Statistical Reporting Service, the United States Dept. of Agriculture, and the Pennsylvania Dept. of Agriculture. The Division was responsible for reporting facts on the state's agricultural activities at the county level to support the reports at the state and national level. The Division obtained information from farmers and agriculture businessmen on prospective and current supplies of agricultural products. Basic data for crop and livestock estimates was obtained from producers by mail, telephone, and personal interview. Bulletins released include weekly weather and crop condition reports; monthly crop reports which list state and national acreages, prices, and stocks; and listings of crop and livestock producers. The forecasts and estimates reach those engaged in agricultural production, marketing, research and development. The Division was also responsible for state surveys of roadside markets, irrigation machinery custom rates, as well as the state and national surveys of farm production expenditures. In addition, the Bureau conducted inventories of agricultural products and machinery (that is, number of commercial fruit trees, grapevines, motor vehicles), and responded to requests for data made by mail, telephone, or in person.

Farm Census Correspondence

1 box
{series #1.10}

Grouped chronologically by date of correspondence.

This series contains correspondence to and from the Dept. of Agriculture, county commissioners, and the local assessors dealing with issues arising from the Triennial Assessments. Correspondence typically consists of the Dept. of Agriculture questioning the accuracy of the latest census of farms reported by the local assessor, and the responses from the assessors explaining the reasons for the reduced number of farms. These replies are interesting because they show the disdain of the local assessors toward their appointed duties and the Dept. of Agriculture. Other topics discussed include instructions given to the local assessors by the county commissioners. Also in this series are copies of the Individual Farm Schedule used to record the data, and copies of Act 153 that required the Triennial Assessments, explained the headings, and gave instructions to the local assessors.

Farm Census County Summaries

1 box
{series #1.11}

Arranged alphabetically by name of county, and there under by year of report.

This series contains the annual assessment report summaries for the Triennial Farm Census. Information provided by the 1924 reports of each township and borough in the county and includes the number of farms and whether they were owned, rented or managed; number of males and females in the family; total acres of farm land; number of acres for winter wheat, rye, oats, corn (for grain and silage), buck wheat, potatoes, tobacco, tame hay, and alfalfa hay; number of bearing and non-bearing apple trees; number of bearing peach trees; number of animals including horses, mules, dairy cattle, other cattle, swine, sheep, and hens and pullets; number of bee hives; number of silos; amount of equipment such as tractors, trucks, and automobiles; whether the farm is equipped with a radio; and whether the farm is equipped with electricity supplies by either a individual plant or a central station. In addition to the previous information, the 1927 census also recorded then number of males and females in the family who were under ten years of age, and whether the farm was equipped with running water in the kitchen, a furnace heating system, milking machines, gas engines and telephones.

Farm Census Returns

1924, 1927
58 boxes/ microfilm rolls 3942-46, 4326
{series #1.12}

Grouped by year of report, and there under arranged alphabetically by name of county, and there under by name of borough or township.

This series contains the annual assessment reports for the Triennial Farm Census as completed by the local assessor for each borough or township. Information provided by the 1924 census returns includes the name of the occupant or person operating the farm and whether they were owned, rented or managed the farm; number of males and females in the family; total acres of farm land; number of acres for winter wheat, rye, oats, corn (for grain and silage), buck wheat, potatoes, tobacco, tame hay, and alfalfa hay; number of bearing and non-bearing apple trees; number of bearing peach trees; number of animals including horses, mules, dairy cattle, other cattle, swine, sheep, and hens and pullets; number of bee hives; number of silos; amount of equipment such as tractors, trucks, and automobiles; whether the farm is equipped with a radio; and whether the farm is equipped with electricity supplies by either a individual plant or a central station. In addition to the previous information, the 1927 census also recorded if the farm had running water in the kitchen, a furnace heating system, milking machines, gas engines and telephones.

Farm Census Summary Lists

(10 folders)
{series #1.13}

Arranged numerically by report number.

This series consists of summaries compiled from the data gathered during the Triennial Farm Census of 1924. Examples of topics covered by the summary lists include total number of farms in each county, number of peach growers by county with individual names listed, individual dairy farmers in Perry County, individual tobacco farmers by county, number of motor trucks on farms in each county, and individual sheep owners in Crawford county. Most of the summary lists include the names of individual farmers and their addresses.

Division of Plant Pathology

Wheat Stem Rust Eradication Program Files,
(3 cartons)
{series #1.14}

Arranged alphabetically by topic.

Records and correspondence sent to the Plant Pest Control Division highlighting the Barberry (Wheat Stem Rust) eradication activities of federal, state, county, and local agencies. The records include reports on the epidemiology of the disease, maps and diagrams showing the spread of the disease and program results, recommendations for the survey and detection of Barberry plants, charts on herbicide testing results, handbooks for crew leaders, publications and additional reference works. Many of the county reports are dated from 1970, and a United State Dept. of Agriculture publication (ca. 1955-1956) on Barberry eradication worldwide is included.

Press Office

Century Farm Files

(5 cartons)
{series #1.20}

Grouped alphabetically by county name and thereafter arranged alphabetically by surname of owner.

The Pennsylvania Century Farms Program was initiated in 1976 to recognize Pennsylvania families who have been farming the same land for at least one hundred years. The idea of a Century Farms Program, aimed at emphasizing the importance of economic and rural heritage and traditions, was originated by the New York Agricultural Society in 1937. Farms which had been in the same family for over 100 years were honored in ceremonies at Albany as members of the Order of Century Farms. In 1948 the Bradford County Historical Society of Pennsylvania began its own program, similar to the one in New York, and today, the Commonwealth's program is administered by the Pennsylvania Dept. of Agriculture. To be recognized, a farm must have been owned by a family for at least one hundred years and the family must still be living there on a permanent basis. Also, the farm must consist of at least 10 acres of the original holding or be grossing more than $1,000 annually from the sale of farm products.

This series contains application files for the Century Farms program. Types of documents included in the files are the application forms, certifications of recognition, correspondence, maps and blueprints, copies of deeds and warrants, photographs, newspaper clippings, and family histories. Information provided on the notarized application forms includes names and family relationships of owners, street address of property, acreage, date of original purchase by family's ancestors, a legal description of the land from a deed or tax statement, and a listing of the chain of ownership during the family's occupancy of the property. Additional historical information which may also be found includes: name of original seller, acreage at the time the farm passed into the family, cost of the land per acre at that time, birthplace and previous residence of first family owner, whether or not the farm was a "homestead", occupation of first owner, number and names of first owner's children, where the children moved if known, whether the original house still stands and is in use, date present home was built, and any other historical data deemed relevant by the applicant.

Press Office Photographs

(14 boxes)
{series #1.5}

Arranged alphabetically by subject.

This series contains black and white photographs taken by the Dept. of Agriculture's Press Office. Some but not all photographs have accompanying negatives. The photographs record events, dept. executive staff, honored guests, animal and plant diseases, promotions, buildings, exhibits, and agricultural products. Examples include construction of the Dept. of Agriculture building, 16th National Plowing Contest, Farm Show livestock parades and champions, crow abatement, Anti-Inflation Gardens, antique farm machinery, and aerial views of areas affected by Oak Wilt. Examples of photographs found here include photographs of insects such as gypsy moth and cereal leaf beetle and photographs showing damage to leafs by these insects

State Soil and Water Conservation Commission

Creation of the State Soil Conservation Commission in the Dept. of Agriculture was provided for by the General Assembly of 1945, which repealed the 1937 Act establishing a State Soil Conservation Board. The 1963 General Assembly changed the name to the State Soil and Water Conservation Commission. The Commission was transferred to the Dept. of Environmental Resources in 1970. County soil and water conservation districts were established by resolution of the board of county commissioners for any county when it was determined that conservation of soil resources and prevention of erosion were problems of public concern in the county, and when a substantial proportion of rural land owners favored such a resolution. The chief responsibility of the county districts was carrying out preventive control measures within the county through cooperation with land owners on a voluntary basis. The Commission aimed toward conservation of soil and water resources by controlling and preventing soil erosion, maintenance projects to safeguard and conserve local water supplies, assistance of community drainage projects, conservation of wildlife, and forest management. The State Commission also approved county plans, appropriated funds from state and federal sources, took responsibility for expenditures by county districts, and cooperated with government agencies.

Annual Reports of the County Soil and Water Conservation District

(2 cartons)
{series #1.15}

Arranged alphabetically by county and there under chronologically by date of the report.

This series contains reports compiled by each county and sent to the State Soil and Water Conservation Commission and interested members of the community. Each report furnishes information from cooperating agencies such as the Pennsylvania Game Commission, Highway Dept., Fish Commission, Dept. of Forest and Waters, Agricultural Extension Service, Vocational Agriculture, United States Soil Conservation Service, and each county's Planning Commission. Frequently, the names, addresses, and phone numbers of these agencies as well as those of the county directors are noted. In addition, the reports often contain descriptions of the types of conservation practices being used, progress reports, and financial statistics. Many county records contain only scattered reports before the year 1956, and only Lebanon and Lehigh counties include records after 1967.

Agricultural History Files

(1 cu. ft.)
{accession 4329)

This box holds about 15 folder of documents and other items concerning the past history of Pennsylvania's Dept. of Agriculture. The folders are as follows:

  • Agricultural legislation: These two folders dated 1943-1957 and 1957-1960 contain pieces ofof legislation passed by the General Assembly concerning agriculture in Pennsylvania. Also included are Weekly Dept. of Agriculture Bulletins, and press releases updating the state on the new legislation being passed. The 1957-1960 folder contains newspaper clippings, as well as various statements by the Dept. of Agriculture Secretary and a brief budget plan for the Dept.
  • 100 Year History of the Dept. of Agriculture: Contained in this folder are journals concerning agricultural history, newspaper articles about the Department's history, as well as photographs from the Pa. State Farm Show's past. Also included is a two-page typed report of the Department's history.
  • Pa. Agricultural History: This folder contains various reports written to describe different historical areas of Pennsylvania's agricultural history. Examples include a report on research and its development over time, a few short books on Pennsylvania agricultural history, reports on prospects for the future of Pennsylvania agriculture, and an article on why Pennsylvania has been and will be a good agricultural state.
  • History of Foods & Chemistry: This folder contains materials circa 1956 concerning the Food and Drug Association (F.D.A.). There are letters proclaiming as well as describing preparations for the fiftieth anniversary of the F.D.A. Also included are a few articles discussing the accomplishments ot the F.D.A. and the Dept. of Agriculture working together over fifty years.
  • Department of Agriculture 50th Anniversary: This folder holds a few short letters describing how the Dept.of Agriculture's 50th anniversary will be celebrated.
  • Department of Agriculture 70th Anniversary: This folder contains items concerning the 70th anniversary of the Dept. of Agriculture. Included are newspaper clipping on past activities of the Department, a report on agriculture in Pennsylvania during the past 70 years, and lastly, a press release on the Department's history.
  • Floor Plans: The contents of this folder are the basic structural and floor plans for the Farm Show Complex.
  • Century Farms: Contained in this folder are letters of recognition for century-old farms in Pennsylvania. Also included is a news bulletin explaining the Century Farm program, and a news release,which explains that the program will continue to be carried out.
  • Pennsylvania Firsts: This folder contains bundles of pamphlets explaining Pennsylvania's agriculture, economy, farm situation, and agricultural income.
  • Agriculture Dept. Building: This unlabeled folder is about the Agriculture Dept. Building.There are a few news bulletins describing plans for the Agriculture Dept.'s new building, some pamphlets about the laying of the cornerstone as well as a roll of projector film, which could possibly contain a visual record of the cornerstone laying.
  • History of Pennsylvania, folder 1: The folder mentions different general books and pamphlets describing different areas of Pennsylvania history including agriculture. Also included are various new releases documenting Pennsylvania history (such titles as Penn's Dream) as well as a Pennsylvania state quiz.
  • History of Pennsylvania, folder 2: This folder contains articles and pamphlets describing the historical value of Pennsylvania's crops, the history of the Pennsylvania State University, as well as news builletins about state and local fairs. There are also articles about "pioneers in agricultural engineering" and early Dutch farmers.
  • History of Pennsylvania, folder 3: Contained in this folder are a few items on Pennsylvania's agricultural history, some county agricultural history as well as a list of presidents and faculty at Penn State.
  • National Agricultural Policy, 1964 -1968: This folder has various articles produced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture explaining different agricultural policies held by the aforementioned.

RG-2 Records of the Office of the Auditor General

The Office of the Auditor General was created in 1809 to replace and assume many of the duties of the offices of the Comptroller General and the Register General. These offices had been originally created to liquidate claims against the state for services performed during the Revolutionary War, and to assist in the final settlement of public accounts. Similarly, the Office of the Escheator General was abolished in 1821, and its duties relative to the estates of individuals dying intestate without heirs or kindred were added to those of the Auditor General.

The Auditor General was made an elective office in 1850 and became a constitutional office with the adoption of the Constitution of 1874. The Fiscal Code of 1929 transferred the function of collecting taxes from the Dept. of the Auditor General to the newly created Dept. of Revenue. Under the Code the Dept. became for the first time a true auditing agency.

As the chief auditor of the state's fiscal affairs, the Auditor General is responsible for insuring that the Commonwealth receives all moneys to which it is entitled and that public money is spent legally and properly. The Auditor General adjusts claims against the Commonwealth, examines tax settlements made by the Revenue Dept., and oversees the examination of practically every financial transaction involving the state.

Canal and Navigation Company Accounts

1818-1852, 1872.
(9 folders)
{series #2.6}

Arranged alphabetically by the first letter of the name of the canal company.

Annual financial records of the Bald Eagle and Spring Creek Navigation Company near Bellefonte, the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, the Monongahela Navigation Company, the Harrisburg Canal, Fire Insurance, and Water Company; the Locust Mountain Coal and Iron Company; the Schuylkill Navigation Company; and the Union Canal Company of Pennsylvania. The records consist of profit and loss statements, account balances, an enumeration of the number of shares of stock sold, and occasionally the results of legal suits filed. Items of special interest are the following:

In the folder "Internal Improvements: Schuylkill Navigation Company, 1818-1838," there is a report dated December 25, 1820. The report lists the various dams and canal locks constructed by the company and their respective sites. 

 A broadside entitled "Specification of a Dam on the Bald Eagle and Spring Circle Navigation" ca. 1835-1840 gives particular direction for constructing a dam, i.e. materials, abutments, crib work, guard embankment and gravel bed of the stream.

Geological Survey Accounts

1837-1840, 1851-1857, 1875
1 box; microfilm roll 3417
{series #2.14}

Arranged chronologically by date payment was made.

Accounts of expenses incurred for the first geological survey of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The sequentially numbered expenses for 1837-1840 most often cover freight charges, food, postage, stationary, and other supplies and generally provide the name of the person receiving payment, the nature of the expense incurred, the amount paid, and the signature of the person receiving payment. Also found for these years are a large number of loose receipts for expenditures paid. Suspended in 1840 due to inadequate funding, the geological survey was resumed when the state legislature appropriated an additional $32,000 for the purpose in 1851. The Expenditures (1851) and Vouchers (1875) provide a record of salaries and expenses paid toward completion of the survey in those years.

Returns of Operators of Collieries, Oil Wells, Ore Banks, & Quarries

3 boxes
{series #2.32}

Grouped alphabetically by county, and there under chronologically by date of return.

Returns filed by individuals and companies under the provisions of the Act for the Collection of Mineral Statistics passed by the General Assembly on May 9, 1871. The returns are for the fiscal year ending December 31, 1871 and provide the name of the owner or other designation of each colliery, oil well, ore bank, or quarry; the name of the township where located; and the name of the land owner, or lessee if applicable. The quantity of coal mined for colliery purposes and whether it was sent to market via railroad or canal, or navigable river or used in a rolling mill, blast furnace, or salt works is noted. The quantities of iron ore, petroleum, salt, limestone, soapstone, clay, slate, or building stone extracted are also reported. The series offers documentation of companies whose collieries, oil wells, ore banks, and quarries were later abandoned and posed a risk to the environment.

River Improvement Accounts

4 boxes
{series #2.33}

Grouped by waterway and arranged there under chronologically.

A file consisting of correspondence, receipts, and financial statements concerning projects to improve navigation on the Susquehanna River, Muncy Creek, North Branch of Susquehanna, West Branch of Susquehanna, Loyalsock Creek, Sinnimahoning Creek, Juniata River, Monongahela River, Cheat River, Allegheny River, Beaver River, Redbank Creek, Ohio River, French Creek, and the Youghiogheny River. Information found includes the names of contractors, dates of contracts, a brief description of work done, and the amount paid. The following are examples of items reflecting early eighteenth century methods of controlling waterway environment.

  • In the folder entitled "Delaware River 1818, L" there is a receipt which reads:
  • Received 29th Sept. 1818 of Jacob Kroures, One dollar fifty cents ($1.50) in full for three pounds of powder and half pound of brine stone for the purpose of blowing the rocks to clear the channel of the river Delaware. Received by Mr. David Redford."
  • Within in the same folder is also found a receipt dated Easton, November 11, 1818: "Received of Jacob Shouse Thirty four dollars ($34.00) in full for seventeen days labor done by me as head blower of rocks in the river Delaware. [signed] Jacob Kraup."
  • Documentation of pier erection in Pennsylvania ports is represented by an item in the folder "Delaware River 1811-1818, G." "Rec'd May 19th 1817 of Joseph Engle, William Anderson and William Graham, Commissioners, for erecting Piers at the Borough of Chester in Delaware County, the sum of One Thousand Dollars ($1000) on account of erecting of said Piers. [signed} John Sexton."

Accession # 3797, Records of Robert P. Casey, Sr.

35 boxes

Within these records are various documents of interest to the environmental historian. They are mostly correspondence, minutes, and reports. The following is a sample list of topics covered here.

  • Atomic energy
  • Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commision
  • Delaware River Port Authority
  • Delaware River Toll Commission
  • Denton Hall
  • Highway maintenance
  • Pa. Agriculture Dept.
  • Pa. Environmental Resources Dept.
  • Swatara State Park

RG-6 Records of the Department of Forests and Waters

The department.was created through a merger of the Dept. of Forestry, the Water Supply Commission, and the Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey in 1923 under Governor Gifford Pinchot. The Division of Forestry was originally in the Dept. of Agriculture in 1895 and became an independent dept. in 1901. The Water Supply Commission was created in 1905. The Dept. of Forests and Waters acquired, controlled, protected, and managed state park lands and provided technical advisory services in forestry conservation, assisted private timberland owners in forestry practices, furnished forest fire prevention and suppression services for state and private forest lands, developed mineral resources on state forest lands, constructed permanent and emergency flood control projects, assisted in developing the state's harbors, provided technical services on water problems, measured stream flows, and regulated the placement of encroachments into the state's waterways and the design, construction, and maintenance of dams.

The Secretary of Forests and Waters served as chairman of the State Forest Commission, the Power Resources Board, and the Geographic Board. From 1937, the Secretary also served alternately as the president of the Navigation Commission of the Delaware River and its Navigable Tributaries and for the Delaware River Basin Commission. The Secretary also served as chairman of the interstate Advisory Committee for the Susquehanna River Basin and the commonwealth's representative to the Coordinating Committee for the Genesee River Basin. He was also a member of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Natural Resources, the Commonwealth Industrial Research Corporation, the Land Reclamation Board, the Boating Board, the Sanitary Water Board, the State Planning Board, the Soil Conservation Commission, State Council of Civil Defense, the Commission on Interstate Cooperation, and the Interstate Commission on the Potomac River. The Secretary served as an ex-officio member of the Washington Crossing Park Commission, the Brandywine Battlefield Park Commission, the Valley Forge Park Commission, and the Pennsylvania State Park and Harbor Commission of Erie.

The Navigation Commission of the Delaware River and Its Navigable Tributaries was transferred to the Dept. of Transportation in 1970. The Dept. of Forests and Waters was absorbed into the Dept. of Environmental Resources in 1971 under the provisions of Act 275 of 1970. The purpose of this legislation and the new agency was to develop a balanced ecological system in Pennsylvania. This would be accomplished through incorporating the State's social, cultural, and economic needs into preservation of its environmental resources. Under Act 18 of 1995, the Dept. of Environmental Resources was split into the Dept. of Environmental Protection and the Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources. Related records will be found in the Records of Special Commissions (RG-25), Records of the Game Commission, (RG-39), Records of the Navigation Commission for the Delaware River and Its Navigable Tributaries (RG-41), Records of the Dept. of Environmental Resources (RG-43), Records of the Dept. of Mines and Mineral Industries (RG-45), Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission (RG-46), Records of the Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources (RG-65), Records of the Dept. of Environmental Protection (RG-66), Records of the Environmental Hearing Board (RG-67), Records of the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency (RG-69) and Records of the Fish and Boat Commission (RG-72).

Administrative Files, Appointments

1 folder
{series #6.1}

Arranged alphabetically by surname.

A list of the names of individuals first appointed to the Dept. of Forests and Waters on January 15, 1923 under Auditor General Samuel S. Lewis. Information provided is name of appointee, their position, and salary.

Biennial Reports to the Governor

2 volumes/roll #4070
{series #6.2}

Arranged chronologically by date of report.

Biennial reports submitted to Governor Gifford Pinchot by the Secretary of Forests and Waters R. Y. Stuart on the activities of the Dept.. Information provided includes forest protection accomplishments, the forest bond issue of 1923, number of trees planted in state forests, number of trees planted by private owners, activities at nurseries, progress of seed purchase and seed collection program, activities at the Pennsylvania State Forest School at Mont Alto State Forest, public education activities, and the activities of the Topographic and Geologic Service, the Water Resources Service, the Lake Wallenpaupack Hydroelectric Project near Hawley, the Conowingo Hydroelectric Project on the Susquehanna River, the Piney Dam Project on the Clarion River, the Indian Run Dam Project of the Pottsville Water Company, and the Pymatuning Reservoir Project in Crawford County. Also addressed are stream gauging and flood warning, culm accumulation in anthracite region streams, geologic reports and publications, and the creation of the Valley Forge Park Commission, the Washington Crossing Park Commission, the Lake Erie and Ohio River Canal Board, Pennsylvania State Park and Harbor Commission of Erie, the Pennsylvania State Geographic Board, and the Pennsylvania State Forest Commission.

Biennial Report to the Governor

1 volume
Accession 3943

Citizens Committee for Project 70 Files

1 box
{series #6.3}

Grouped by type of material and arranged there under chronologically by date of record.

Plans, budgetary materials, press releases, correspondence, materials for speeches, promotional booklets, and newspaper clippings relating to Project 70. In response to a public referendum held on November 5, 1963 sponsored by the Citizen's Committee for Project 70, enabling legislation was passed on June 22, 1964. Project 70 was intended to provide 50% matching grants to the Commonwealth's 2600 municipalities for the purpose of acquiring open space for recreation, conservation, and historical purposes. The project was so named because all land to be acquired was to be purchased prior to the year 1970. The language of the referendum read: "Shall 'Project 70' be undertaken by amending Article Nine of the Constitution of Pennsylvania by adding a new section to permit creating a debt and issuing bonds to the amount of seventy million dollars ($70,000,000) for acquisition of land for State parks, reservoirs and other conservation, recreation, and historical preservation purposes and for participation by the Commonwealth with political subdivisions in acquisition of land for such purposes under conditions and limitations prescribed by the General Assembly" It was primarily focused on acquiring land for development of regional parks in the 43 most urbanized counties, acquiring land and stream valleys to increase fish and wildlife populations, providing recreational and open spaces for local communities, assisting development of three new Federal recreational facilities containing large lakes, providing sites for future construction of reservoirs, stimulating tourism, and preserving historical landmarks. The largest portion of these funds (approximately $40,000,000) were funneled through the Dept. of Forests and Waters to support such projects at Ohiopyle State Park in Fayette County, acquisition of Enchain Farms in Bucks County, acquisition of land on the West Branch of the Codorus Creek in York County, the Robert Fulton Birthplace in Lancaster County, Locust Lake in Schuylkill County, acquisition of the Jeffords Estate in Delaware County, the Nockamixon State Park Addition in Bucks County, and the Valley Forge State Park Addition in Chester and Montgomery Counties. The partnership between the Dept. of Forests and Waters and groups like the Federated Sportsmen and the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy is reflected in correspondence, minutes, press releases and newspaper clippings.

Delaware River Compact Book

(1 volume)
{series #6.4}

The Delaware River was the focus of many Pennsylvania conservationists in the twentieth century. Published Compact as to the Waters of the Delaware River issued January 13, 1927. This was a compact reached between the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the State of New Jersey and the State of New York and consists of twenty-five articles defining the agreement reached as to the quantity of water each state would be permitted to divert from any tributary of the Delaware River or from the channel. For related materials see also the records of river and harbor commissions in Records of Special Commissions (Record Group 25).

Monthly Reports to the Governor

(1 folder)
{series #6.5}

Arranged chronologically by date of report.

Monthly activity reports submitted by district foresters to State Forester Joseph S. Illick and by Secretary of Forests and Waters Charles E. Dorworth to Governor John S. Fisher concerning the activities of the Dept. of Forests and Waters. The type of information provided includes the number of seedling planted, number of type of tree transplanted, a description of survey work conducted, forest protection measures implemented, publications issued, conferences attended, field trips, and meetings held.

Publications (Forest Leaves & Service Letter)

(24 folders)
{series #6.6}

Arranged chronologically by date of publication.

'Service Letters" and copies of the magazine Forest Leaves published by the Pennsylvania Forestry Association. The Service Letters are typed newsletters that were issued by the Dept. of Forests and Waters and contain minutes of weekly Service Meetings and public information concerning various departmental programs. Among these are articles written by District Foresters concerning such topics as white pine weevils, the number of trees planted in each county, oil and gas development in the northern Appalachian fields, and the use of fine sized anthracite for making briquettes. Forest Leaves (now called Pennsylvania Forests) is an illustrated magazine published bimonthly by the Pennsylvania Forestry Association, a private forest advocacy organization founded in 1886

Report on Proposed Improvements to Delaware Division of the Pennsylvania Canal

(1 folder)
{series #6.7}

A report to Governor James H. Duff entitled Report Covering Proposed Improvements to the Delaware Division of the Pennsylvania Canal From Mile Post 24 to Mile Post 60 prepared under the direction of Secretary of the Dept. of Forests and Waters M. F. Draemel and Deputy Secretary E. S. McCawley and submitted by Consulting Engineers Damon & Foster of Sharon Hill. The report provides detailed descriptions of the condition of the various components of the canal together with specific recommendations for repairs and is illustrated by photographs of each component discussed. Also included are sectional drawings of the various components of the canal together with cost estimates of repairs. For related materials see Pennsylvania Canal records in the Records of the Land Office (RG-17).

Valley Forge Park Commission Blueprint

(1 folder)
{series #6.8}

A preliminary blueprint plan for a park extension at Valley Forge prepared for the Valley Forge Park Commission by landscape architect Richard S. Burns to accompany reports of June and December 1928. Blueprint depicts layout for proposed changes including buildings, wooded areas and open spaces. For related materials see Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission (RG-46)

Valley Forge Park Commission Condemnation Proceedings

(6 folders)
{series #6.9}

Grouped by proceeding and arranged there under chronologically by date of document.

The series contains correspondence, transcripts of deeds, court petitions, reports of juries of view, and certificates of search relating to condemnation proceedings implemented for acquisition of land for the Valley Forge Park. These records relate to petitions filed by, and settlements made with, James Biggam, J.A. Loughin, Florence H. Loughin, John J. King and Mary F. King, Marie Janeway Estate, Charles E. Hires Estate, Zuiderhoek & Lyle, Jane Garrett Estate, Reading Railroad Company, Pine Iron Works Company, Phoenixville Federal Savings and Loan Association, Clara Buzzard & Husband, Charles F. Binder & Wife, Eastern Real Estate Company, Henry S. Espenship et. al., John E. Arleth, George M. Andrews, Mary Emma Wolf, George J. Horstmann & Wife, Grace Jenkins & Husband, Freda K. Lynn, Norman W. Rhoads and Wife, Anna G. Schrack, Charles W. Schrack, Glenn F. Keller Estate, Montgomery Building and Loan Association, The Rector, Wardens and Vestrymen of the Washington National Chapel at Valley Forge, James B. Smythe and Robert M. Browne, Archer & Wolf, Henry J. Kauffman, Frank Quigg, Glenn F. Keller, Joseph A. Asbert. The information provided includes names of owners, deed reference numbers, location and legal description of tracts, descent of title, date of acquisition by the Commonwealth, and amount of compensation. For related materials see Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission (RG-46).

Valley Forge Park Commission Reports

1919, 1935-1939.
(2 volumes)
{series #6.10}

Arranged chronologically by date of report.

The report submitted to Governor William C. Sproul in 1919 provides a history of Valley Forge Park legislation beginning with the Act of Assembly of May 30, 1893, a description of the development of the of the park, progress being made on restoration, a description of the duties and powers of the Valley Forge Park Commission, and the names of property owners, size of their tracts, and amounts paid to each for acquisition of lands for the park. In addition this report is illustrated with copies of the following maps: Dopur-Tail Map of Encampment at Valley Forge (1778) the original of which is held by the Cornell University Library, Contemporary Map of the Encampment at Valley Forge (1777-1778) by a French Engineer from the library of the Honorable Samuel W. Pennypacker, a photograph of an early map depicting locations of the headquarters of various officers at Valley Forge, copy of an early map depicting the Encampment at Valley Forge (1778), Map of Revolutionary Camp Ground at Valley Forge Showing Ownership of the Lands at Date of Encampment (1777-1778) prepared in February, 1897 by Samuel M. Carrigues of Bryn Mawr, General Plan of Valley Forge Park Showing Proposed Extension and Drives prepared by Clarke & Howard, a map of Valley Forge and Vicinity (1907), General Map of Revolutionary War Camp Grounds at Valley Forge (1917), Valley Forge Park and Vicinity (1918), and Development Study for the Revolutionary Camp Ground at Valley Forge prepared by Civil Engineer Jacob Orie Clarke on September 30, 1919. The Report of the Valley Forge Park Commission, October 24, 1935 to January 1, 1939 addressed to Governor George H. Earle was published at the individual expense of Commissioners Edward C. Shannon, Victor C. Mather, William H. Taylor, Lewis H. Parsons, William R. Tucker, Jr., John A. McCarthy, Thomas S. Gates, George W, Hensel, Jr., Samuel D. Riddle, Joseph B. Hutchinson, Harper D. Sheppard, Vance C. McCormick, and Governor Cadwalader. The report documents plans for park development, park appropriations and finances, trust fund income, improvements made to historic sites and park buildings, Works Progress Administration projects, park visitation, damages to the property, donations, and security problems. Both the Valley Forge State Park Commission Reports for 1919 and 1935-1939 document its dispute with its neighbor: the Ehret Magnesia Company plant. As early as 1919 Commission reports complained about the waste disposal practices of Ehret Magnesia. More than a dozen years later the Commission was still tabulating the damage done by Ehret Magnesia. Preservation concerns led the Commission to remove all public utility poles from Valley Forge State Park according to the 1935-1939 report. For related materials see Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission (RG-46)

Bureau of Parks

The Bureau of Parks was responsible for operating and maintaining Pennsylvania's state parks together with a large number of state forest monuments, natural areas, and state forest picnic areas. This Bureau, through its Division of Planning, prepared plans for new state parks and improvements of facilities in existing state parks and recreation areas. The Division of Maintenance handled contracts for concessions in state parks and enforced rules and regulations throughout the state park system. The Bureau of Parks was later reduced to the Division of Parks in a reorganization of the Dept. Forests and Waters. Since 1995 it has existed as the Bureau of State Parks in the Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources.

Addresses, Press Releases and Related Correspondence

(1 folder)
{series #6.11}

Arranged chronologically by date of record.

This series contains addresses, press release, and related correspondence of Eric von Hausswolff, et. al. Among the addresses are presentations made at conferences of the Girl Scouts of America and similar types of public events. Topics include trends in camping and "Can Parks be made Self-Supporting?"

General Correspondence

(9 cartons)
{series #6.12}

Grouped alphabetically by subject or surname of correspondent and arranged there under chronologically by date of correspondence.

Subjects include Valley Forge Park, Washington Crossing Park, World's End Park, Whipple Dam, and Works Progress Administration Projects. Correspondents include important conservationists. The following files have items of interest:

  • In carton 1 the file on the Appalachian Trail documents Pennsylvania's portion of the trail (the Darlington Section), its sponsor group: the Appalachian Trail Conference, and the leadership of its chairman, Myron H. Avery. Founding a state park or state forest involved making decisions on environmental issues.
  • Also in carton 1 there is a1934 letter by Forests and Waters Secretary Lewis E. Stacey describes how runoff from abandoned coal mines pollutes the streams in Bucktail State Park.
  • Carton 1 also contains documentation of how the WPA performed flood repair and a topographical survey at Bushy Run Battlefield in 1936.
  • Environmentalist Mira Lloyd Dock expresses interest in Caledonia State Park in a copy of a letter to Gifford Pinchot dated January 10, 1922. The letter is in carton 2.
  • In 1925 George W. Childs Park letters reveal how the park staff dealt with pollution of a park stream by an industrial company and in 1933 with canker caterpillars which were attacking trees.

General Correspondence: Circular Letters

  • Two folders of "circular letters" in carton 2 are arranged by name of the state forest and then chronologically. Not all forests, however, are represented here and not all represented have relevance to environmental history. Item of special interest include the following.
  • An agency communique to all state foresters orders compliance with Act 299, known as the "Public Bathing Law," passed on June 23, 1931 by the General Assembly. The law declares that permits from the state Dept. of Health are required for public swimming pools as well as lakes and streams used for swimming in state forests and parks.
  • A 1935 memo announces that all state foresters are now serving as deputy field agents of the Sanitary Water Board responsible for prevention of water pollution. Formal rules and regulations are approved by the State Forestry Commission to protect the environment in 1936.
  • In reaction to citizen donations of exotic trees and plants, the agency instated a new policy in 1938 of planting only trees and plants native to the environment within state forests and parks.
  • The Cook State Forest files contain 1920s correspondence of the Cook Forest Association, citizens in favor of Cook State Forest and the Wild Life League, a state-wide organization of hunters, fishermen, and outdoor lovers. In 1935 Forest and Waters Secretary James F. Bogardus wrote about the threat of billboards in Cook State Forest. Deer destruction of shrubs and trees led the Dept. of Forests and Waters to consider deer hunting in Cook State Forest in 1932. In 1936 Cook State Forest foresters learned about the Forest County Sanitation Project, a WPA program designed for rural area homes and urban areas without sewers. Pennsylvania Governor George H. Earle approved cutting of lumber and cords of fuel wood from dead and down lumber in Cook State Forest in 1938.
  • A folder on "Dams" contains a list of recommended dam sites on state forest lands in 1933.
  • Proposed development of the Philadelphia area Darby/Cobbs Creek Park is documented for the year 1938.
  • Minutes and correspondence of both the Fort Washington Park Commission and the Commissioners of Fairmount Park illustrate how local groups lobbied for state parks.
  • A letter by Forbes Forest District forester V. M. Bearer's letter dated January 21, 1928 contends that Pennsylvania Game Commission's game animals are consuming food sources intended for non-game animals such as deer and ruffled grouse.
  • The Dept. of Forests and Waters conducted a health and sanitation inspection at Black Moshannan Park in the Park Dam area on August 24, 1938.
  • The Pennsylvania Dept. of Health filed a chemical analysis of water at Laurel Creek in Pine Grove Furnace on January 21, 1938.
  • Problems in maintaining the forest environment in the Pymatuning State Park are discussed by Bureau of Parks Chief of Planning Eric von Haussenwolff in correspondence dated October 20-21, 1938. A1938 letter from Bureau of Parks Director James S. Pates comments on the shortage of live bait fish at Conneaut Lake near Pymatuning State Park. Forests and Waters Chief of Planning Eric von Haussenwolff and the National Park Service exchange views in July 1938 correspondence about keeping automobiles from parking in park areas of new trees and plants in Pymatuning State Park. Haussenwolff and Bureau of Parks Director James S. Pates discuss preservation of trees in Pymatuning State Park in correspondence dated October 26-28, 1938. In the same folder is a map produced by the Pennsylvania Water and Power Resource Board in 1938 of the Pymatuning Reservoir Project.
  • A letter dated September 30, 1938 from Bureau of Parks Director James S. Pates, says high levels of acid in stream water at the Prescottville Mill Dam make the stream unfit for either swimming or fishing. This letter is in the "R folder."
  • The Pennsylvania Dept. of Health inspected the bathing beach, drinking water and sewage disposal at Reeds Gap State Park and presented its finding in a report dated August 1936
  • The folder for Roosevelt State Park contains correspondence with the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company and the Delaware Division Canal Commission from 1931 to 1934. Among the subjects mentioned are the break in the Delaware Canal in 1932 and the discovery of canal survey maps dating from 1900 at Reeds Gap State Park.
  • Within the Su-Foresters folder there is a Dept. of Forests and Waters survey of foresters for possible sites for parks and recreational areas. The foresters' replies describe the geography, trees, plants and wildlife of the proposed park.
  • Alleged decaying vegetation or garbage in a swimming hole at Loyalstock Creek is addressed on June 2, 1937 by J.F. Bogardus, Forests and Waters Secretary. The correspondence is in the "T-V folder."
  • Plans for a Wild Flower Preserve at Washington Crossing Park are revealed in letters between the Dept. of Forests and Waters and the Council for Preservation of Natural Beauty in Pennsylvania from 1934 to 1938. Ephemera materials include a 1934 layout map of the wild flower preserve, a 1935 prospectus for preserve work, a 1938 trail guide produced by Washington Crossing Park and several articles about the wildflower preserve written by Edgar T. Wherry. The problem of canker caterpillars at Washington Crossing Park is discussed in letters between Eric von Haussenwolff and the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture in June 1936.
  • Several letters from J. Horace McFarland dated 1935 and 1936 are found in the folder for Whirl's End Park [also known as World's End Park]. Another McFarland letter, dated 1935, is addressed to Bureau of Parks Division Chief Eric von Haussenwolff.
  • The Eric von Haussenwolff folder has a number of public speeches he delivered on the topics of forests and parks.

General Correspondence, Photographs

9 cartons
{series #6.12}

The following description is quoted from Linda A. Ries, Guide to Photographs in the Pennsylvania State Archives.]

"Among these records is the 'Historical Report on Fort Necessity, Jumonville's Grave, and Braddock's Trail,' prepared by Roy Edgar Appelman for the National Park Service, August 21, 1935, which includes nine 2 x5 photographic prints showing existing features at Fort Necessity State Park. Also included are eight similar prints taken November 20, 1936, showing Emergency Conservation Workers constructing paths, planting trees, etc., around the park."

Minutes of Various Park Commissions & The State Park Commission

6 folders
{series #6.13}

Grouped alphabetically by commission and arranged there under chronologically by date of meeting.

This series has minutes of the Bushy Run Battlefield Commission, Conrad Weiser Park Commission, Pennsylvania Recreational Council, Valley Forge Park Commission, Washington Crossing Park Commission and the State Park Commission. Information provided includes date and location of meeting, names of those present, and a description of the business transacted. For related materials see Records of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission (RG-13) and Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission (RG-46)

Reports of the Bureau of Parks

13 folders
{series #6.14}

Grouped by subject and arranged there under chronologically by date of report.

From 1924 to 1941 the Commonwealth's system of state forests and parks, as we know it today, was being created. The Bureau of Parks within the Dept. of Forests and Waters was responsible for establishing and maintaining these forests and parks. Documentation of the agency's work is provided through monthly, biennial, and special reports within the following folders:

  • Areas Suitable for Recreational Use and Development" (1924-1925)
  • Biennial Reports, 1927-1929.
  • Biennial Reports, 1935-1937. In a 1936 report the Bureau asked the Erie Park and Harbor Commission "to refrain from installing telephone poles and electric power lines due to the incongruous effect such poles would have on the landscape." 1937 reports cover flood control and flood legislation. 1938 reports document the use of zinc oxide to stop bird consumption of tree seedlings, experiments to determine the effect of chemicals and fertilizers upon tree seedlings and containment of various insect and fungus diseases in state forests.
  • Bowman's Hill State Wildflower Preserve, 1938. Botanical work is described in the report.
  • Delaware State Forest, 1937(Promised Land Park, Owego Trail Public Camp Ground, Pecks Public Camp Ground.) The report on Promised Land Park contains recommendations for preservation of wilderness areas.
  • Facilities Available in Major Park Areas for Summer Seasons of 1937 and 1938 (Including List of Parks, Recreational Areas, and Historical Monuments).
  • General Restoration, 1936.
  • Historical Commission re the Forge, Dams and Races on Valley Forge Creek in 1777-1778, 1929. The report was issued by Commission chairman J. O. Clarke.
  • Land Acquisitions, 1936-1939. This folder contains resolutions, maps, and related correspondence about the Commonwealth's acquisition of land for state parks and forests.
  • Monthly reports, November 1936-February 1939. This folder includes related reports of the Bureau of Forests and the Bureau of Waters by foresters. A January 1939 report states comments on a study of deer damage plots in the Susquehannock district and says that a record 1,133 forest fires occurred in Pennsylvania from June to December 1938.
  • Monthly reports, April 1937-November 1938. The reports are from the Bureau Superintendent to the Commission.
  • Permanent Camp Site Inspections, 1928-1929. Maps dated from 1922 to 1927 are available for the Delaware, Tiadaghton, Tioga, Bald Eagle and Sinnemahona State Forests.
  • Valley Forge Park Commission, 1927-1941. The park's landscape architect discusses reforestation, pruning, spraying, transplanting and the variety of trees and plants in a 1927-1929 biennial report. A report for 1928 by landscape architect Richard S. Burns describes the neighborhood surrounding Valley Forge Park. Another 1928 report tells of how eight wild steers who escaped from a local farm roamed the park for ten days damaging trees and plants before being captured. A 1936 report advocated that the Commission acquire land on the banks of the Schuylkill River "when and as pollution is removed and erosion is controlled." A June 1937 report describes the impact of insect diseases upon park trees and a fire that burned more than five park acres. Throughout 1937 the Commission waged a battled against neighboring Ehret Magnesia Company whose factory allegedly deposited carbonate of lime waste into Valley Forge Park. A 1938 report documents that 265 dogwood, white pine, willows, native hawthorn, Judas and hemlock trees were donated to the park. For related materials see Records of the Valley Forge Park Commission (RG-46)

Bureau of Forest Management

The Bureau of Forest Management was responsible for managing and administering more than 1,900,000 acres of state forested lands. Consisting of twenty forest districts, Pennsylvania's forests were administered by district foresters who were each supported by a staff of one or more technical foresters and a varying number of non-technical forest foremen. The Bureau processed leases or agreements for buildings, rights-of-way, and forest campsites. The Bureau was also responsible for scientific forest management of each of the forest districts and handled all timber sales in the state forests. Since 1995 the Bureau of Forestry in the Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources has carried out these responsibilities.

Reports & Correspondence Relating to Forest Lands

1 carton
{series #6.15}

Grouped by type of record and forest district.

This series contains farm and building reports, contracts and agreements, the 1922 annual report, and forest receipts. The farm and building reports provide information concerning farms and buildings located in state forests including their location, date of report, assigned number, and state forest district. The farm reports give number of buildings, acreage adapted to farming, condition of production, principal crops, average value per acre, a recommendation as to whether land should remain in farming and if nor, whether it ought to be sold or reforested. The building reports give type of construction, dimensions, condition, date constructed, value, present use, whether used by the Dept., if used as a dwelling the name of the occupant, whether needed by the Dept., whether located on a camp site, and whether a good photograph is available. The building reports frequently include photographs. The annual report gives the name of the forest, total acreage, state forest acreage, total purchase price, and purchase price per acre. Notable items include the following. A 1936 report notes the creation of "forest working plans" for state forests. A manuscript titled "Some Essential Considerations for a Wildlife Policy for State Parks" is unsigned but appears to be dated circa 1936 or 1937. The Bureau partnered with the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in an experiment testing Asiatic Chestnut resistance to blight in 1938. A large state-wide survey conducted by the Bureau between 1924 and 1925 titled "Areas Suitable for Recreational Use and Development" discusses issues like water resources, drainage and sanitation conditions, and the age, character and species of tree growths.

Bureau of Accounts

The Bureau of Accounts reported to the Office of the Secretary. It tracked the monthly accounts and budgets for the Dept. of Forests and Waters and also conducted field audits.

Monthly Accounting Reports, Budget Statements, Field Audits and Miscellaneous Accounts

63 folders
{series #6.16}

Grouped by type of record and arranged there under chronologically by date of record.

Budget papers, ledgers, monthly accounting reports, bills and receipts, estimates, records of expenditures and allotments, checks, vouchers, field audit reports and valuations on lands and buildings are in this series Information given varies with type of document but generally provides financial overview of the various programs administered by the Dept. of Forests and Waters.

Park Commission Correspondence

41 folders
{series #6.17}

Grouped alphabetically by subject of correspondence and arranged thereafter chronologically by date of correspondence.

The series features correspondence relating to financial accounts involving Bushy Run Battlefield Park, Bushy Run Commission and Battlefield Association, Conrad Weiser Park, Fairmount Park Commission (in reference to Washington Park Commission), Fixed Charges, Lake Erie and Ohio River Canal Board, Sesquicentennial Commission, State Park and Harbor Commission of Erie, Valley Forge Park Commission, and Washington Crossing Park Commission.

O. Ben Gripple Papers

1939-1975, 1948-1950, 1949-1965
0.75 cu. ft.
accessions #s 3057, 3294, 3380


O. Ben Gripple, (b. 1890) was born in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania and earned a B.S. in Forestry from the Pennsylvania State University. He served on the Pa. Game Commission and as Chief of the Bureau of Forest Management. His papers document mainly his work with the Dept. of Forests and Waters. Documents include correspondence, reports, news clippings, photographs and a scrapbook. Examples of items in the Gripple Papers include the following:

  • News clipping: "Our Vital Duty to Conserve Natural Resources, by James Duff, Philadelphia Inquirer, March 25, 1945.
  • Publications: Carl C. Taylor, "Conservation: A Social and Moral Problem," Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, vol. 6, no.1, January, 1951; Pa. Dept. of Public Instruction, Pennsylvania Teaching Guide to Natural Resources Conservation, (Curriculum Series No. 7) (Harrisburg: Pa. Dept. of Public Instruction, 1962, reprint 1964)
  • Reports: National Wildlife Federation, "Report: Burned-Over Forest Area by Acres," April 1941; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture,
  • Preliminary Draft of Survey Report, Delaware River Watershed," June 1950.
  • Photographs: O. Ben Gripple and other foresters.

Division of Flood Control

The Division of Flood Control was responsible for alleviating flood damage and providing flood control facilities. Engineers in this Bureau studied the high flow characteristics of flooding streams to determine whether and how it was feasible for the Commonwealth to provide flood protection assistance. In furnishing flood control facilities, the Bureau provided engineering design, supervision and construction services in addition to allocating the necessary funding. The Bureau also supervised stream clearance operations and channel rectification and debris removal from streams throughout the Commonwealth.

Survey Book of the Delaware Division Canal

2 volumes
{series #6.18}

Arranged sequentially along the length of the canal corridor.

Present here are survey books containing highly detailed tinted maps drawn from surveys conducted in April and May of 1868 for the Delaware Division Canal Company (owners) and the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company (lessees) under the direction of Civil Engineer Thomas F. McNair. Maps depict fine detail of the canal together with the names of property owners.

Public Relations Office

The Public Relations Office served as the public liaison for the Dept. of Forests and Waters. It provided motion picture films and photographs designed to promote the public information programs and activities of the Department.

Motion Picture Films

[ca. 1930-1950]
43 16mm reels
{series #6.19}

These are motion picture films produced for the purpose of documenting and publicizing the Dept.'s programs. Most are 400-foot silent black and white films depicting such topics as gypsy moth population control, the life cycle of the pine seed, and proper tree trimming practices. Two films show unemployment relief workers cutting firewood and building roads at Birch Run Dam and five others are devoted to Civilian Conservation Corps activities across the state. Among the public education films are such titles as "The Sugar Maple Industry in Pennsylvania," "Trees for Tomorrow," and "The Life of a Seedling." Also present are two forest fire films produced by federal agencies; one entitled "Then It Happened" was produced by the United States Dept. of Agriculture and one entitled "The Enemy of Fire" was produced by the United States Office of Civilian Defense.

Photographs and Negatives

[ca. 1890-1971]
16 cartons, 1 box, 36 drawers
{series #6.20}

Glass plate negatives are arranged numerically and correspond to contact prints that are arranged alphabetically by subject. The prints are mounted on heavy boards that have both captions and the negative number.

This series contains approximately 8,000 photographic prints and over 2,700 matching negatives created by the staff of the Dept. of Forests and Waters for the purpose of education and publicity. Many of the early photographs were taken by forest rangers, some of who later became high-ranking agency officials such as Joseph Illick, George Wirt, and Henry Clepper. Many later images from the 1930s and 1940s were by staff photographers such as David S. Nace. Integrated into the series are private photograph collections of Pennsylvania Forester Joseph T. Rothrock and Galeton commercial photographer William T. Clarke. Some of these private photographs predate the Division of Forestry and many of Rothrock's photographs were featured in Forest Leaves (now known as Pennsylvania Forests, the journal of the Pennsylvania Forestry Association). Subjects include Arbor Day exercises in New Cumberland (1924) and at Slippery Rock State Normal School (1925) and representative old growth specimens of such large trees as Pennsylvania oak, elm, tulip, poplar, hemlock, and white pine. The following categories pertain specifically to environment studies.

  • A category labeled "Forest Destruction" illustrates damage caused by chestnut blight, deer, natural erosion, flooding, fungi, insects, humans, rabbits, and snow, wind and ice.
  • A category called "Forestry Building" features forest rangers' homes with their associated outbuildings, picnic pavilions in various state parks, fire observers' cabins, the chapel and public school at Mont Alto, James Buchanan's birthplace, iron furnaces at Mont Alto and Caledonia, Laurelton State Village, the Jacob Nolde Estate in Berks County, Civilian Conservation Corps buildings, the General Refractories Company at Karthaus, the Clark's Ferry Bridge, lock houses along the Delaware Canal, and miscellaneous gristmills and country churches among other buildings.
  • There are related subseries about camps:"Camps and Camp Sites," "Demonstration Forests" at Caledonia, Lebo, Sligo and Millstone, "Emergency Conservation Work" depicting Civilian Conservation Corps members living and working at many camps throughout the state.
  • "Farm Woodlots" depicts the use of forests as part of farms.
  • "Floods and Flood Control" depict flooding along the Delaware Canal.
  • "Forest Conditions" show the composition of stands of trees, water supply, natural regeneration, original stands of trees, and miscellaneous views.
  • "Forest Animals" depicts bear, beavers, bison, deer, elk, grouse, snakes, turtles, and trout farms and "Forest People" includes portraits of Andre Michaux, Alan Seeger, Joyce Kilmer, and various river rafts-men, snake-catchers and tar-burners.
  • "Forest Officials" contains both formal and informal portraits of members of the Forestry Commission including Joseph T. Rothrock, S. B. Elliot, Robert S. Conklin, George Wirt, Mira L. Dock, Henry W. Shoemaker as well as group portraits taken at annual conferences of the Pennsylvania Forestry Association, the Pennsylvania Forest Research Institute, the State Foresters' Conventions, the Society of American Foresters, and Governor Arthur James's 1941 visit to Ricketts Glen State Park.
  • "Forest Recreation" subjects include scenes depicting fishing, golfing, hiking, hunting, picnicking, and swimming at various state parks and activities of the Girl and Boy Scouts, Young Men's Christian Association, Pennsylvania Alpine Club, and the Pennsylvania Forestry Association.
  • "Forest Schools" contains views of Mont Alto Forest School and Yale Forest School in Pike County, the Royal Forestry School in Italy, and the Nancy Forest School in France where Gifford Pinchot studied.
  • "Important Tree Study Places" includes views of the A. E. Ball Property in Mercer County, D. P. Drake Property in Monroe County, Pierre DuPont Estate at Longwood, Gettysburg Battlefield, Lehigh University campus, Marshall Arboretum and Westtown School in Chester County, H. Y. Miller Farm in Warren County, Mont Alto Forest School, Nolde Estate in Berks County, Sligo in Clarion County, and the York Water Company Property in York County.
  • "Lumbering Towns" contains depictions of Cameron, Driftwood and Emporium in Cameron County; Bitumen in Clinton County; Straight in Elk County; Betula, Gardeau and Norwich in McKean County; Austin, Cross Fork, Costello, Hull, Keating, Summit, Logue, Lyman Run, Mina, Nine Mile, Roulette and Wharton in Potter County, and Leetonia in Tioga County.
  • "Monuments and Markers" includes depictions of dedication ceremonies for the "Road of Remembrance" in Wrightsville (1922), birthplace and grave markers for President James Buchanan, the York Imperial Apple Marker in York, Joseph T. Rothrock's grave in Chester, monument to Mary Jemison in Adams County, and markers honoring H. A. Smith in Venango County, George Wirt in Mont Alto, and S. B. Elliott in Moshannan State Forest. Other markers shown include those for Fort Necessity and General Braddock's grave, the Commodore Perry Victory Memorial at Presque Isle, the 1930 dedication ceremonies for a marker commemorating the first purchase of State Forest Land at Young Woman's Creek in Clinton County, the 1936 dedication ceremonies for a marker honoring S. T. Moore at Greenwood Furnace, the Mason and Dixon stone boundary markers, a marker on the summit of Negro Mountain, and cemeteries in Perry, Huntingdon, Northampton, Bedford, and Bucks Counties.
  • "Nursery Tree Operations" contains depictions of tree nurseries at Clearfield, Mont Alto, Milton, and Greenwood and at state prisons at Huntingdon, Rockview, and Graterford. Also present are views of Antietam Nursery at Reading, Wernersville State Hospital, Overbrook Nursery in Philadelphia, Penn Nursery in Centre County, and the Clearfield Bituminous Coal Corporation Nursery in Indiana County.
  • "Reforestation in Pennsylvania" illustrates the planting of trees during the period 1909-1930 in forest fire devastated and denuded areas created by heavy timbering and mining.
  • "Ornamental Tree Planting" depicts planting of trees along streets and roads including Front Street in Harrisburg, various streets in West Chester, near Echo Lake in Monroe County, and along the Lincoln Highway and Route 1 near Halifax.
  • "Sawmills" depicts sawmills of the Central Pennsylvania Lumber Company, the Wheeler and Dusenbury Company, the Clearfield Bituminous Coal Corporation, E. C. King Sawmill in Cambria County, and smaller mills in Austin, Costello, Gardeau, Sizerville, Leetonia, Hull, Norwich, Keating Summit, Roulette and Cross Fort. Also shown are up-and-down portable mills in Berks, Cameron, Centre, Franklin, Huntingdon, and Perry Counties.
  • Small Subject Categories" include depictions of chestnut tree culturing, views of German and Swiss forests, Forests and Waters exhibits at the Pennsylvania Farm Show and county fairs, experiments in forest conversion, and forest fires, fire fighting equipment, fire towers and fire lines. Also present are views of equipment used for forest measurement and weather forecasting, growth studies conducted at Mont Alto, patients at Mont Alto Sanitarium, box huckleberry studies, tree bark, tree surgery, unique (freak) trees, willow tree culturing, immigrant berry pickers, tree grafting, state forest road construction, seed supply stations, trails, picnic areas, surveying crews, road signs for state forest boundaries, and boundary and division lines for state forest property and the construction of boundary markers. Views of state forest trails can be found for Cameron, Bedford, Franklin, Lancaster, Perry and Pike Counties among others.
  • "Wood-using Industries and Wood Products" contains views of the mills at the Glatfelter Pulp and Paper Company in York County, New York and Pennsylvania Paper Company in Elk County, West Virginia Paper and Pulp Company in Blair County, Hammermill Paper Company in Erie, and an unidentified paper mill in Austin. Chemical companies depicted include the Gray Chemical Company and the Keystone Chemical Company in McKean County, Tionesta Valley Chemical Company in Forest County, and the Gaffney Brothers Wood Products Plant in Potter County. Also present are views of the Norwich Lumber Company and the Wheeler and Dusenbury Company, the Costello Tannery, the Elk Tanning Company in Sullivan County, Edwin Bell Stave Mill in Franklin County, Columbia Wagon Works in Lancaster County, and a locust pin mill in Bedford County. Other photographic subjects include the making of charcoal, keg staves, pins, fruit and vegetable baskets, shingles and tanbark.

Photo File

ca. 1950s-1960s
Accession #2283

Department of Forest and Waters

16mm color film, ca. 1950
1 cu. ft.
Accession 1922 (unprocessed)

Civilian Conservation Corps Activities in Pennsylvania

16 mm. b/2 copy negatives & prints
16 reels
Accession 1057


Water and Power Resources Board

The Water Power Resources Board regulated encroachments upon the waters of the Commonwealth, except the tidal waters of the Delaware River and its navigable tributaries, and allocated equitable distribution of surface waters to public water supply agencies. The Board also approved applications for incorporation for letters patent of public water supply agencies, administered the rehabilitation and maintenance of the Schuylkill River Project, maintained the flood radio warning system in the Susquehanna River Basin, maintained the George B. Stevenson Dam and operated and maintained the Pymatuning Reservoir. In cooperation with the United States Weather Bureau, the Board also maintained and operated the Federal-State Flood Forecasting Warning System throughout the Susquehanna River and Ohio River systems. The Board assisted local municipalities in constructing flood control projects authorized by the United States Congress to be carried out by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The Commonwealth, though the Water and Power Resources Board, provided up to 50% of the local costs of these projects for purchase of land, easements, rights-of-way, and the cost of relocating utilities.

Distribution Sheets, Vouchers of Expenditure & Miscellaneous Accounts

3 cartons
{series #6.21}

Grouped alphabetically by subject and arranged there under chronologically by date of record.

This series contains distribution sheets, vouchers of expenditure, and general appropriations records relating to flood water control, Delaware River Treaty, the dike along the Delaware River at Matamoras, flood prevention at Lock Haven, French Creek improvement at Meadville, Laurel Dam in Michaux State Forest, and the Pymatuning Reservoir Project.

Final Report of the Schuylkill River Project Engineers to the Water and Power Resources Board of the Department of Forests and Waters

September 1, 1951
1 volume
{series #6.22}

Within this series is the Secretary of the Sanitary Water Board's copy of the published Final Report of the Schuylkill River Project Engineers to the Water and Power Resources Board of the Dept. of Forests and Waters, September 1, 1951 completed by the Schuylkill River Project Engineers Frederick R. Harris & Frederick H. Dechant Associates; Albright & Friel, Inc.; Day & Zimmerman, Inc.; and Justin & Courtney. The United States Army Corps of Engineers constructed three impounding basins on sites provided by the Commonwealth for the purpose of receiving culm from the Plymouth and Flat Rock Pools, and eventually another site was slated to be acquired for the purpose of receiving culm from the Fairmount Pool. Removal by dredging of three quarters of a million yards of culm from the Auburn, Tamaqua, Kernsville, and Felix Desilting Basins resulted in restoring affected streams to a near pristine condition. Information provided is a history of the project, a description of the Schuylkill River Project Engineers, participation of other groups, cost breakdown for the project, a description of the resulting improvements, maintenance, recovery of anthracite, engineering management and construction, a description of the contracts and an alphabetical lost of the names of contractors, acquisition and disposal of land, and an index of photographs. The report is illustrated with numerous charts and graphs reflecting coal production levels, stream flow, and sediment discharge.

General Correspondence

1 carton
{series #6.23}

Arranged alphabetically by subject and there under chronologically by date of correspondence.

Subject categories include Attorney General, Auditor General, Fisheries Dept., Forestry Dept., Geographic Board, Giant Power Survey Board, Governor's Office, Health Dept., Highway Dept., Hydrographic Division, Printing and Binding, Property and Supplies, Public Service Commission, and War Dept. in addition to such personal names as R. C. Batley, George S. Beal, R, J. Gillis, and the Honorable Frederick H. Newell. Items of interest include the following:

  • Folder "D-F" has abundant material relating to environmental concerns about waterways and dams.
  • The "Fisheries Dept." folder contains a notable letter dated April 7, 1925 from Fisheries Commissioner N. R. Buller to Water and Power Resources Board Chair Charles E. Ryder on the issue of dam permits and fishing.
  • This issue is also addressed in "Forestry Dept." correspondence for 1925. In 1925 five bills were introduced into the General Assembly concerning dams, dykes, streams and reservoirs. These legislations are the subject of several Forestry Dept. letters.
  • Within the "General Correspondence" folder is a "Program for District Foresters Conference at Mont Alto, August 14-15, 1924. The program is valuable for citing the number of environmental issues discussed at the conference.
  • A folder for the "Giant Power Survey Board" dated 1924 contains many letters debating for example whether navigation on the Susquehanna River should be a criteria for development of water supply and power use.
  • The general correspondence file for the "Health Dept." contains interesting letters to and from Thomas J. Lynch, Director of Waters in July and September 1926 in which the problem of culm in the Schuylkill River and potential pollution of White Oak Creek in Lackawanna County is addressed. Also of interest are the letters of Secretary of Health Charles H. Miner in 1925 about the 1905 and 1913 laws relating to the environment, the Sanitary Water Board, and the state of conservation in Pennsylvania. The letters of Chief Engineer, Bureau of Engineering, and Health Dept. chief W. L. Stevenson for September 1925 list all water works in Pennsylvania associated with a dam. The locality, county, stream and water company involved are given. Stevenson correspondence for August 1925 discusses potential pollution of the Juniata River. A letter from Health Dept. Secretary Charles H. Miner to Forests and Waters Secretary Robert Y. Stuart deals with the Act of June 23, 1913 and its relevance for sewers. Stuart is also represented in the Dept. of Highways folder in late 1923 correspondence about construction of bridges and their effect on drainage conditions.
  • The entire folder of Hydrographic Division correspondence from 1923 to 1925 is rich in data about subjects like hydrographs, gaging stations, and drainage areas.
  • The correspondence of the federal War Dept. and U.S. Corps of Engineers for 1923 to 1925 mentions many environmental issues such as control of sewage, mine waste, oil pollution, and harbor scraping. The folder also contains permits issued by the U.S Corps of Engineers.


7 cartons
{series #6.24}

Arranged chronologically by date of meeting.

These are the minutes of the meetings of the Water Power Resources Board. The bound volume covering 1923 to 1928 is indexed but the unbound reports from 1929 to 1968 have no index. Throughout the series, however, subjects such as public utility, water and railroad companies and environmental problems are discussed.


1930, 1936, 1942
2 folders, 1 volume
{series #6.25}

Arranged chronologically by date of meeting.

The series contains reports on the relationship between the condition of the Delaware Division Canal and flooding in the Delaware River, the Turtle Creek floods of 1930, and a 1936 special survey entitled "Comprehensive Studies and Analyses, Coal and sand and Gravel Dredging Industries and Recommending Legislation Providing for Royalties for Coal and sand and Gravel Recovered from Beds of State-Owned Waters." In response to the floods of 1936 and 1942, "The Delaware Division Canal Report upon Its Present Condition and Its Relationship to the Control of Floods in the Delaware River" was compiled by the Water Power Resources Board.

Stream Flow Record Books

21 volumes
{series #6.26}

Arranged chronologically by date of report.

The Board divides the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania into three main drainage areas: Delaware, Susquehanna, and Ohio. The Stream Flow Records presents data in headings corresponding to these three basins. Published annual Water Resources Service Stream Flow Records for water years running Oct. 1 through Sept. 30 providing information on how the streams were measured, flood warning, and precipitation levels. For each site, information given is location, drainage area, date span for which records are available, type of gage, how measurements were made, a description of the channel and control measures, extremes of discharge, presence of ice, and accuracy of readings. Readings include the daily mean gage height in feet, the daily discharge in second-feet. There are also statistical tables, maps and an index.

Water Company Charter Books

9 volumes
{series #6.27}

Arranged chronologically by date of entry.

Acceptance books, approval books, and miscellaneous agreements of mergers, applications, petitions, and acceptance by companies of conditions imposed in the approval of charters granted to water companies by the Water and Power Resources Board.

Dept. of Forestry, 1895-1923

The Division of Forestry in the Dept. of Agriculture was originally created by the Pennsylvania Act of March 13, 1895. The Dept. of Forestry was created in 1901 when the Division of Forestry was taken out of the Dept. of Agriculture. The Dept. of Forestry remained an independent agency until it was merged into the Dept. of Forests and Waters in 1923. Its responsibilities were then divided between the Division of Forest Management, Division of Forest Advisory Services, and Division of Forest Protection. Since 1995, these responsibilities have resided with the Bureau of Forestry in the Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources.

Account Book of Joseph T. Rothrock, Commissioner of Forestry

1 volume
{series #6.28}

Arranged chronologically by date of entry.

In this series is found the account book of Joseph T. Rothrock (1839-1922), the first Commissioner of Forestry under the Dept. of Agriculture from 1895-1901, and then under the Dept. of Forestry, 1901-1904. Widely known as "the father of Pennsylvania forestry," Rothrock was an explorer, surgeon, botanist, college professor, Michaux Forestry Lecturer, president of the Pennsylvania Forestry Association, editor of Forest Leaves; and administrator of tuberculosis sanitaria. When he became the state's first Commissioner of Forestry in 1895 he set in motion the purchase of lands for State Forestry Reservations, training programs of foresters for state service, established forest tree nurseries for reforestation, and created a system for detecting and extinguishing forest fires. In 1902 he set up the first informal tuberculosis camp in Mont Alto State forest for the fresh-air cure of tuberculosis patients. Though he resigned as Commissioner of Forestry in 1904, he continued to serve as a member of the Forest Commission until 1914.

Bureau of Forestry Photos

Accession 2142

Letter Books, Mont Alto Forestry School Carbons

Accession 2142

Joseph T. Rothrock Michaux Lecture Notes

1 cu. ft
Accession 2142

Annual Reports of Foresters and Rangers

1 carton & 11 folders
{series #6.29}

Arranged alphabetically by name of forest or division.

The series features annual reports submitted by foresters and rangers for the forest divisions and forests under their respective jurisdictions. The type of information provided is number of seedlings planted, condition of campsites and trails, fire risks, and similar routine activities of foresters and rangers. Examples of environmental topics reported include lightning strikes, plantations, insect and fungus attacks, climate, size of forest and forest fires. In addition there are two folders dealing with forest fires during 1917 in Berks, Carbon, Columbia, Lehigh, Northampton and Schuylkill Counties. The forest fire reports state the locale of the fire; damaged or destroyed property, person (s) responsible for fire, and the names of individuals or corporations who suffered damage from the fire.

Biennial Reports

6 volumes
{series #6.30}

Arranged chronologically by date of report.

The series has biennial reports on the progress of work conducted by the Dept. of Forestry. The type of information provided includes the names of individuals from whom property was purchased together with the name of the county where tract is located and the number of acreage purchased; report of the Commissioner of Forestry, roster of foresters, roster of forest rangers, record of forest fires, private forest fire protective associations, new construction and repairs, legislation, legal affairs, financial statements, receipts, records of permanent camp leases, temporary camping permits, individual foresters' reports, Forest Inspector's Report, fixed charges on state lands, land grant applications, dept. leases, timber sales, rights of way, telephone contracts, nursery reports, and the value of forest products. The reports are liberally illustrated with photographs and charts. A description of the reports is given below.

  • The 1901-1902 report compiled by Joseph T. Rothrock, the state's first forestry commissioner, set the format for future Forest Commissioner reports. In the first part of the 1901-1902 report Rothrock reviews the history of state forestry and makes recommendations for forest preservation, particularly coping with forest fires, trespassers and cattle. He also discusses legislation passed in 1887, 1897, and 1901 that affects forests. In the second part, there are essays written by botanist, forester, and preservationist Mira Lloyd Dock, George H. Wirt, and Joseph T. Rothrock. The report concludes with statistics on timber cutting and forest fires.
  • The 1908-1909 report is longer and more topical than the 1901-1902 report. Forests and Waters Commissioner Robert S. Conklin is concerned with the Chestnut Blight, the Fire Warden Act of 1909, and other forest protection legislation. The remainder of the report consists of individual forester reports, and statistics on forest reservations, timber cutting and forest fires.
  • The 1912-1913 report follows the same format as that of the 1908-1909 report. Items of interest here include the state's acquisition of George W. Childs Park in Pike County, the retirement of forestry commissioner Mira Lloyd Dock and the Forestry Dept.'s education exhibit at the 1913 Pittsburgh Exposition.
  • The 1914-1915 report describes the impact of lightning in state forests.
  • The 1916-1917 report has information on forest protection and a synopsis of state purchase of land from individuals and groups during the year.
  • The 1918-1919 report is written by Forestry Commissioner and future governor Gifford Pinchot (1865-1964). His twenty-six page report is the shortest one of this decade.

Correspondence of Foresters and Rangers

12 cartons
{series #6.31}

Grouped alphabetically by name of forest and surname of forester and arranged there under by date.

This series has correspondence of foresters and rangers documenting routine activities in the various forest districts including planting of seedlings, land acquisition, conditions of campsites and trails, the chestnut tree blight and fire risks. Environmental topics mentioned in this series includes problems like insect and tree diseases, theft of forest trees, the use of strychnine sulphate by hunters, and reclamation of burned forest lands. The series is incomplete for not all years and not all forests are represented. Forests documented are:

  • Bald Eagle
  • Bear Meadows
  • Bedford
  • Black
  • Blackwell
  • Brumbaugh
  • Buchanan
  • Buffalo
  • Clearfield
  • Kettle Creek
  • Lackawanna
  • Loyalsock
  • Lushbaugh
  • McClure
  • McElhattan
  • Minisink
  • Pennypacker
  • Pine Creek Reserve
  • Penn
  • Pine
  • Pine Grove
  • Pocono
  • Seven Mountain
  • Seven Mountain Reserve
  • Seven Mountain-Barre Division
  • Seven Mountain-Penn Division
  • Seven Mount-Huntington County Division
  • Sinnemahoning
  • South Mountain
  • Stone
  • Stuart
  • Westfall
  • Whetham
  • White Deer-McCall Division
  • White Deer-Tea Spring Division
  • Young Woman's Creek.

Letter Press Books

75 volumes/microfilm rolls #s4071-4077 [for period 1902-1904]
{series #6.32}

Arranged chronologically by date of correspondence.

Indexed internally, alphabetically by surname of correspondent.

This series consists of correspondence sent from the Commissioner of Forestry Information supplied here includes name and address of person to whom sent, date of correspondence, and text of the letter. Topics include planting of seedlings, land acquisition, conditions of campsites and trails, activities of the Chestnut Tree Blight Commission and fire risks.

Monthly Reports of Foresters and Rangers

7 cartons, 15 folders
{series #6.33}

Grouped alphabetically by name of forest and surname of forester and arranged there under chronologically by date of report.

These are monthly reports submitted by foresters and rangers for the forest divisions and forests under their respective jurisdictions. The information supplied includes the number of seedlings planted, condition of campsites and trails, fire risks, and similar routine activities of foresters and rangers.

Proceedings of the State Foresters' Conference

1 volume
{series #6.34}

The series contains the published Proceedings of State Foresters' Conference, Senate Chamber, Harrisburg, PA, December 8 and 9, 1920, Bulletin No. 23 (Harrisburg: 1922) that was chaired by Gifford Pinchot. Information given provides a comprehensive overview of the concerns that eventually led to the creation of the Dept. of Forests and Waters in 1923.

Susquehanna Tract Abstracts of Titles

(15 cartons, 1 box)
{series # 6.35}

Arranged numerically by volume and therein chronologically by date of entry.

The series has letter press books (Potter Title and Trust Company copies) of abstracts of titles for tracts acquired for state forests in Adams, Bedford, Cameron, Carbon, Centre, Clearfield, Clinton, Cumberland, Elk, Franklin, Huntingdon, Juniata, Lycoming, McKean, Mifflin, Monroe, Montgomery, Northumberland, Perry, Pike, Potter, Snyder, Tioga, and Union Counties. Information provided is date of acquisition, name of owner, location of tract, acreage of tract, and amount of compensation.

Bureau of Abandoned Mines and Reclamations

Photoprints of Schuylkill Canal Lockhouses, Oct. 1948
70 8x10 prints
3 cu. ft.
Accession #1269


Water Supply Commission, 1905-1923

The Water Supply Commission was created in 1905 and operated as an independent agency until merged with the Dept. of Forests in 1923 to form the Dept. of Forests and Waters. Its purpose was to regulate encroachments upon the waterways of the Commonwealth except for the tidal waters of the Delaware River and its navigable tributaries. It also allocated an equitable distribution of the surface waters to public water supply agencies, approved applications for the incorporation of water supply companies.


Annual Reports of the Water Supply Commission

1907, 1913-1922.
(1 box)
{series #6.36}

Arranged chronologically by date of report.

These annual reports provide descriptions of flood conditions, quality of water supply runoff, approvals for water supply companies, and problems affecting the Commonwealth's water supply. Although the Commission was created in 1905, the first report to the Governor was issued in 1907. The series held by the Pennsylvania State Archives is thus incomplete. Reports are only available for the years 1907, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917-1918, 1919-1920, and 1921-1922. The table of contents of the 1907 report has chapters devoted to water companies, obstructions to streams (i.e. bridges and dams), hydrographic studies, deforestation and its effect upon stream flow, floods, water power and tables of statistics and illustrations. Of special interest in the 1907 report is an account of the Pittsburgh flood of March 14-15, 1907 and a retrospective view of past Pennsylvania floods. The 1913 annual report is similar to that of 1907 in that a general account of activity during the year is given. However, the 1913 report improvises upon the early report by discussing new legislation as well as the Pymatuning Swamp Reservoir Project in northwestern Pennsylvania. The 1914 annual report is distinguished by an essay on dike construction in Fall Township, Bucks County and the Sandy Creek investigation. The 1915 report is interesting because of its discussion of a proposed Commonwealth policy for control of streams. This issue becomes a standard part of the 1916 report with the chapter on navigation. Chapters on the water supply in the Anthracite coal region and a "report on proposed joint project for regulating the discharge of the Shenango and Beaver Rivers and supplying water for the Lake Erie and Ohio River Canal" are the outstanding features of the 1917-1918 annual report. Reports for 1919-1920 and 1921-1922 are notable for addressing the topic: "Flood Studies: Their Purpose and Methods."

General Correspondence of the Water Supply Commission

1909-1910, 1914-1923.
(3 cartons)
{series #6.37}

Arranged alphabetically by surname of correspondent or name of name of company or agency.

The general correspondence of the Water Supply Commission consists of routine correspondence, interoffice memos, information requests from the public, other state agencies and the federal government and letters interpreting Pennsylvania laws dealing with water resources. Information given includes date of letter, name of correspondent, and nature of problem or complaint. Below is a sampling of major items in the correspondence about the environmental importance of water resources.

  • In folder B, 1916-1919, there is a letter dated July 23, 1919 from the Water Supply Commission to the Commissioners of Bradford County about contamination of Towanda Creek, above Monroeton. There is also a newspaper clipping from the Altoona Tribune issue of December 7, 1916 describing the Pennsylvania Railroad's construction of a reservoir near Tipton in Blair County. In folder B, 1920-1922, there are six letters of correspondence during 1920 between the Commission and the City of Baltimore concerning the city's wish to use water from the Susquehanna River for its water supply.
  • In folder C, 1916-1919, there is a March 20, 1918 to the Commission describing dumping of bottles and broken glass into a stream (possibly Conondoguine Creek) near Newville, Cumberland County. In C folder, 1917-1919, there is correspondence for 1917 about the illegal dumping of ashes, gravel and earth along the west banks of the Susquehanna River near West Pittson, Lackawanna County. The folder also has seven letters between the Commission and B.B. Looper discussing whether drinking water from an Osceola Water Company dam contributed to an outbreak of typhoid fever in Centre County.
  • In folder D, 1916-1922, there is a letter by environmentalist Mira Lloyd Dock to the Water Supply Commission dated August 25, 1914. Folder F, 1916-1922 contains an exchange of letters between the Commission and state representative William Flinn (Pittsburgh) about a proposed law defining the water rights of corporations.
  • The folder for the Dept. of Fisheries, 1916-1921 has several letters from the Commissioner of Fisheries, N. R. Buller to the Commission. In a February 8, 1917 letter Buller discusses the dumping of waste into the Susquehanna River at Wilkes-Barre. In correspondence of August 1 and 2, 1921, Buller expresses concern about the pollution of Pennsylvania's streams.
  • In the second of two folders of correspondence for the Dept. of Forestry there are noteworthy letters from Gifford Pinchot, who served as a Commissioner of Forestry and twice Governor for the Commonwealth. In correspondence dating from December 9 through December 15, 1920, Pinchot asks Water Supply Commissioner Thomas J. Lynch how Pennsylvania can comply with a new federal law about control of navigable streams. On February 7, 1921 Pinchot writes to Commission chairman Charles E. Dorworth, expressing fears about passage of proposed legislation in the General Assembly that would allow water power companies to regain "the right of eminent domain." On May 21, 1921, Pinchot addresses Commission about the legal case "Lykens Valley Water Company vs. A. F. Hanna." Hanna alleges that Lykens Valley supplies water to communities outside its chartered territory. With the correspondence is a memorandum outlining the details of the legal case.
  • In folder G, 1916-1922, there is a letter dated September 12, 1917 from Harry Grube calling the Commission's attention to the dumping of ashes and refuse into Bushkill Creek, Lehigh County.
  • In the folder "Letters to the Governor, 1916-1922" items of interest include a letter dated October 12, 1916 from Governor Martin Brumbaugh to Thomas J. Lynch, Water Supply Commissioner inviting him to attend a conference on control and regulation of flood waters in Pennsylvania. Correspondence between Governor William C. Sproul and Commission chairman Charles E. Dorworth dated February 18 and 28, 1921 discusses Westinghouse's plan to build a dam on the Delaware River, the Act of September 20, 1783 which constrains the states of New Jersey and Pennsylvania regarding encroachment of the Delaware River and a 1911 opinion written by the Pennsylvania Attorney General that the Commonwealth is still bound by the 1783 act. Also within this folder are the Commission's reports to the Governor submitted December 1, 1920 and October 26, 1922.
  • In folder H there is a letter from Thomas J. Lynch to the Hazen Sand Company Inc. of Bangor, Northampton County concerning the "washing of certain refuse material into Jacoby Creek."
  • The 1916-1919 folders for the state Dept. of Health contains its engineer's reports of permits issued to Pennsylvania companies relative to waterworks and sewage. Reports are available for October, November and December 1917 and April 1918. The discharge of salt water into Connoquenesing Creek by oil well operators is addressed in a letter dated April 17, 1916 from Health Dept. assistant chief engineer C.O. Emerson to Thomas J. Lynch. "A Conference to Consider the Control and Regulation of the Flood Waters of Pennsylvania" is mentioned by Health Commissioner Samuel G. Dixon in a March 5, 1917 letter to Health Dept. Chief Engineer Charles E. Ryder. Dixon also writes to Lynch on July 5, 1917 about pollution of a stream near Littlestown, Adams County and on August 29, 1917 about mine discharge pollution in Centre County.
  • Pollution problems are also represented in the Dept. of Health, 1920-1922 folder. A letter from Health Dept. Chief of Waterworks and Sewage R. E. Moses to Thomas J. Lynch, January 24, 1920, on the effect of the Rockhill Iron and Coal Company upon the water supply of Robertsdale, Huntingdon County. Moses also tells Lynch about possible mine water drainage from the Greensburg and Connellsville Coal and Coke Company in Westmoreland County in a July 13, 1920 letter
  • A Health Dept. study in Homestead and the city of York "to determine the effect of certain atmospheric conditions upon infant life" is cited by C. E. Emerson in a July 16, 1920 letter to Health Dept. Chief Engineer Charles E. Ryder.
  • Commissioner of Health Edward Martin writes to Lynch on February 15, 1921 about pollution of the Allegheny River in Warren County.
  • Mine water flooding in Williamstown, Dauphin County is the topic of a letter from J. M. Delaney.
  • C. A. Emerson cites a May 1921 article in the Journal of the American Water Works Association on pollution in Pittsburgh in a July 1, 1921 letter.
  • Water Supply Commission Assistant Chief Engineer W.L. Stevenson and Thomas J. Lynch correspond July 26, 1921 concerning contamination of streams and public water supplies by acid mine drainage.
  • Stevenson alerts Health Dept. Chief Engineer Charles E. Ryder on August 16, 1921 about "probable disposal of sewage" into Broadshead Creek, Monroe County.

Highway Department

series #

The correspondence of the Highway Dept., 1916-1922 has applications for bridge construction permits. The permits list the township, county and locality of the proposed bridge. Permits cover the period August through October 1916.

  • Monthly reports of the Hydrographic Division, 1920-1922 exist for the years 1920 and 1921. For 1919, there is only a December report and for 1922 all months are represented except December.
  • Within folder "I-J" there is a letter dated December 30, 1921 from Boyd A. Jarrett, agriculture supervisor for the Chester County Schools, complaining of dye contamination of Brandywine Creek, Chester County.
  • There are relevant reports within correspondence folders pertaining to the "U.S. Dept. of the Interior." In the folder for 1916-1919 is a "Report re Methods Used by the Water Supply Commission of Pennsylvania in Collection of Stream Flow Records, July 1918."The 29 page illustrated report has an appendix but no index. In the folder for 1920-1922 is the "41st Annual Report of the Director of the U.S. Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1920." The 180 page illustrated report is unbound and has no index.
  • Within folder "K" there is a letter dated December 2, 1921 from the Water Supply Commission to the Borough of Kutztown about the disposal of spent dye water into Saucony Creek, Berks County.Also in this folder is the "Report of Proposed Intensive Development of Water Resources of Ohio," published by the Columbus Chamber of Commerce, August 21 1922. This 30 page report is unbound and has no index.
  • A newspaper clipping and a letter from an industrial manufacturer are found within the correspondence dated 1916-1918 in folder "L." The clipping is from an unnamed Lancaster newspaper dated April 11, 1922 with the headline: "Engineer Tells of Ephrata Water Sources." The manufacturer Deming H. Lucas informs the Commission of an acid-free pump for pumping out sulphuric acid water in a letter dated November 8, 1918.
  • An engineer for the Pennsylvania Railroad gave a speech on water quality in 1920. The Philadelphia Evening Ledger issue of October 21, 1910 published the speech under the headline "Pure Water Urged as a Vital Need." This clipping is available in Folder M, 1916-1922 general correspondence.
  • The folder for the "Morgan Engineering Company" of Dayton, Ohio covers the period 1916-1922. The Morgan Company compiled a ten page report entitled "A Program of the Hydrographic Services of the Water Supply Commission of Pennsylvania." There is also a letter dated June 30, 1921 from Water Supply Commission chief engineer Charles E. Ryder to Arthur E. Morgan. Ryder says although Laurel Hill Creek in Somerset County is reputedly the least polluted stream in the Commonwealth, it is at risk for future pollution.
  • Notable items within the folder "N-O general correspondence for 1916-1922" include the following. A letter to Water Supply Commissioner Thomas J. Lynch dated July 28, 1916 discusses the cleaning of a channel in Shamokin Creek, Northumberland County. A January 20, 1919 letter from U.S. Railroad Administration District Claim agent C. M. Robeson to Water Supply Commission district engineer R. A. Boehringer tells of a flood in Torbert, Pennsylvania. A letter to Governor William C. Sproul dated January 28, 1921 warns that the St. Lawrence Seaway would adversely affect Pennsylvania's waterways. Finally a 1921 report on the St. Lawrence Seaway, "Preliminary Report of the Commission Created Pursuant to Chapter Eight Hundred and Six of the Laws of Nineteen Hundred and Twenty" authored by the New York State Legislature, is found in this folder.
  • The general correspondence folder for "New Jersey, 1920-1922" has a series of letters between Water Supply Commission chief engineer Charles E. Ryder and New Jersey Dept. of Conservation water engineer H. T. Critchlon advocate collaboration between New Jersey and Pennsylvania in establishing stream gaging stations on the Delaware River. Related to these letters is an official state document issued by the State of New Jersey in 1922 entitled "Report on Water Resources of the State and Their Development." The 76 page bound report includes a map of New Jersey showing possible sites of water supplies and an index.
  • There is a fascinating folder of general correspondence 1916-1919 for the "Pennsylvania Railroad" (PRR). Some of the letters and ephemera are about floods. For instance, there are blueprints depicting PRR bridges in various Pennsylvania counties circa 1916. The purpose of the blueprints is to allow the railroad to track water surface elevations during floods. Charles E. Ryder writes to PRR engineer F. E. Langenheim on February 19, 1916 listing dams built by the Pennsylvania Canal Company which were destroyed in the flood of 1889. Similarly PRR engineer A. W. McClellan wrote several letters to Langenheim in August 1917 about the effect of the flood of April 19, 1916 on PRR routes near Rehovo, Clinton County. Illegal ash dumping in the Conemaugh River at Lockport is the subject of a half dozen PRR letters in October and November 1916 from the Water Supply Commission. Two letters between Thomas J. Lynch and PRR engineer W. Thompson dated July 1916 discuss ash dumping in the Susquehanna River at Catawissa, Columbia County.
  • Folder "P-Q" has three letters to the Pennsylvania Coal and Coke Company in April 1916 about dumping of slate and mine refuse into Moshannon Creek, Clearfield County. Two letters to the Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company in July and August 1916 document a debate over dumping of ashes and refuse into an unnamed stream in Allegheny County near Natrona. The flooding of Mahoning Creek in Punxsutawney, Jefferson County is the subject of Water Supply Commission correspondence September 8 and 15, 1916. The Pittsburgh and Westmoreland Coal Company received a letter from the commission dated July 19, 1917 about alleged slate and refuse dumping into Brush Run Creek near Manor, Westmoreland County. This folder also has monthly reports of the Hydrographic Division for August, September and October 1919.There is a March 24, 1920 letter from Thomas J. Lynch to John R. Haswell listing the Commonwealth's gaging stations needed for the purpose of giving flood warnings.On March 14, 1921 Lynch writes to J. M. Jacoby of the Flood Commission of Pittsburgh naming all the applications concerning Pennsylvania streams filed to date with the Federal Power Commission.
  • The general correspondence folder "R, 1916-1922" features a 1916 survey conducted by state hydrographer John D. Reckford of conservation commissions in other states that publish hydrographic information. Letters dated October 4, 1917 and February 1, 1918 between the Water Supply Commission and the Reading Transit and Light Company mentions ash dumping into the Schuylkill River in Berks County.The chief engineer of the Water Bureau of Reading corresponds with Thomas J. Lynch in three letters November to December 1922. The topic is how to stop damaging of earth embankments by burrowing animals. Also in the folder is a useful list of dams circa 1922 located on the main branch and tributaries of Maiden Creek in Berks and Lehigh Counties. The list gives the approximate size of the dam, approximate capacity of the pond or reservoir, the purpose of the dam and the name of the structure's owner.
  • A dispute between the Schuylkill Light, Heat and Power Company and the Borough of Ashland (on the Schuylkill/Columbia County line) was heard by the Public Service Commission in 1913-1914. The folder for the commission contains a 27 page pamphlet description of the case as well as a five page document entitled "Decision of the Public Service Commission of Pennsylvania in the Ashland Case, April 10, 1914."
  • In the general correspondence folder "S, 1920-1922" there is a September 11, 1920 letter to Robert S. Spangler from Thomas J. Lynch in which Lynch alleges that pollution of the Susquehanna River at Cly by the American Phosphorus Plant is killing the fish in the river.
  • In the general correspondence folder "T, 1915-1922" is an unsigned newspaper clipping from the January 11, 1921 issue of the Uniontown Morning Herald. The headline of the article reads "Flood Menace Discussed by State Agent."
  • From 1909 to 1910, the Water Supply Commission conducted a survey of domestic water companies and industrial corporations in order to track water consumption. In the folder Water Supply and Consumption, 1909-1910 are both completed survey forms and letters submitted by companies in lieu of the official forms. The survey asked the following questions: who is supplied with water; from what source; method of supply from each source; capacity of pumps; capacity of main reservoirs; location of main pipe lines, and an estimate of average daily consumption for each source.


9 volumes
{series #6.38}

Arranged chronologically by date.

This series features financial ledgers of fees collected and expenses disbursed from 1905 to 1923 by the Water Commission.

Letter Press Books, 1905-1913.

(22 volumes)
{series #6.39}

Arranged chronologically by date of correspondence. Indexed internally, alphabetically by surname of correspondent.

These are letter press books containing correspondence sent by the Water Supply Commission. They note the date of correspondence, name of correspondent, and text of the letter sent.

Minute Books

5 volumes
{series #6.40}

Arranged chronologically by date of meeting.

This series has minute books kept by the Water Supply Commission that was created in 1905. Information provided is date of meeting, names of those present, and a description of the business transacted. The Water Supply Commission became the Water and Power Resources Board when the Dept. of Forests and Waters was created in 1923. Within the minutes are occasional references to conservation. For instance in the minutes of January 30, 1906, the commission passed a resolution to ask the Governor whether the commission was empowered "to take cognizance of and prevent the pollution and contamination of the rivers, streams and waters of this Commonwealth."

Pymatuning Reservoir Project Land Transfer Files

(5 cartons)
{series #6.41}

Arranged numerically by file transfer number.

The series contains records pertaining to the acquisition of land by the Commonwealth for the Pymatuning Reservoir Project. Areas in Crawford County, Pennsylvania, and eastern Ohio were flooded in the 1930s to create the multi-use Pymatuning Lake. Records include land deeds, reports, insurance appraisals and surveys, arranged numerically by file number. Occasionally interfiled are photographs of a property and any pertinent buildings thereon, usually farmhouses, barns, etc. These are roughly 3x5 contact prints, sometimes with matching negatives. Most appear to have been taken during the 1930s by G.S. Beal, possibly an insurance appraiser. Many contain identification as to subject and date photographed."

Record of Laws and Procedures Relating to Water and Water Power Companies

(1 volume)
{series #6.42}

The full title of the volume is The Water Supply Commission Law Relating to Water and Power Companies with an Appendix Containing the Law Relating to the Water Supply Commission, Rules of Procedure, and Forms compiled by the Water Supply Commission of Pennsylvania, 1909 & revised by the Legislative Reference Bureau, 1919. Information provided is a history of water companies, procedures for granting water company charters, a description of the general powers granted under the charters, territorial rights, exclusive privileges, duties with regard to quantity and quality of water and service, rates, eminent domain, right to dam streams, municipal relations, amendment of charter, amount of capital stock and indebtedness, merger and consolidation, dissolution and forfeiture, and offences against water companies. The appendix contains articles dealing with the creation and administration of the Water Supply Commission including material on Pymatuning Reservoir and French Creek. An appendix of the document has sample application forms for charters and permits.

Record of Obstructions in Navigable Streams

(8 volumes)
{series #6.43}

Arranged chronologically by date of application.

In this series are record books containing applications submitted to the Water Supply Commission for the construction of such obstructions as bridge abutments, dams, reservoirs, and temporary or permanent channel alterations in navigable streams. The original set consisted of ten volumes but only eight are within the State Archives. The volumes are all indexed by subject and concern various application to build wharfs, piers, bridges, dams, bank fill, slope paving etc. by various companies. The volumes list the name of entity making application, date of application, location of proposed construction, and purpose of the construction. If the request was denied, a reason is given for the denial. However, sometimes there is no notation about whether an application was approved or disapproved. The record books also state "the conditions under which work can be done" when approved by the Water Supply Commission.

Vouchers of Expenditure

(5 cartons)
{series #6.44}

Arranged chronologically by date of voucher.

The series contains vouchers for expenditures disbursed as a result of the activities of the Water Supply Commission. Information provided is date of expenditure, amount of expenditure, and purpose of expenditure.

Water Resources Inventory Including Reports, Correspondence, Photographs and Maps

(14 cartons)
{series #6.45}

Grouped by type of material and usually arranged there under by date of record.

Within this series are reports, correspondence, maps, charts, field notes, original field notebooks and accompanying indexes for the Turtle Creek Valley Survey from the Monongahela River to Pittsburgh in 1914, photographs, and final typed drafts of the Water Resources Inventory Report. The State Inventory Act of July 25, 1913 provided for creating a systematic inventory of the Commonwealth's water resources in order to make better decisions about the location of new dams and reservoirs, decrease the danger of destructive flooding, and improve navigation. The result was a ten-part Water Resources Inventory Report published in 1916. The report includes sections entitled:

  • "Turtle Creek Investigation"
  • "Gazetteer of Streams"
  • "Gazetteer of Lakes and Ponds"
  • "Precipitation"
  • "Water Supply"
  • "Water Power"
  • "Floods"
  • "Navigation"
  • "Culm in the Streams of the Anthracite Region."

The following description is quoted from Linda A. Ries' Guide to Photographs at the Pennsylvania State Archives: Photographs are nearly 300 prints of varying size either taken by staff or obtained from other sources and glued to pages of the final draft. Those collected but not used in the draft are interfiled with the appropriate section. All items are identified on the reverse, often giving the date and photographer. Some are air-brushed. Prints are not found in Parts I, V and VI.

  • Inventory Report, Part II: Turtle Creek Investigation, 1913-1916, contains 104 views taken between 1907-1914 of factories, rail yards and homes in East Pittsburgh, Harrison City, Pitcairn, Trafford, Turtle Creek and Wilmerding. Notable items include views of the Edgar Thomson Open Hearth Steel Works, the Westinghouse Air Brake Company, and the Turtle Creek Floods of 1907 and 1911. Most views are 3 x 5 - contact prints by staff taken in the summer of 1914. A few are by Henry Sonnenberg, a Turtle Creek photographer.
  • Inventory Report, Part III.: Gazetteer of Streams, 1914-1916 contains nineteen views of streams throughout the Commonwealth, including views of the Analomink, Broadhead and Pennypack Creeks and the Lehigh, Delaware (at Narrowsville), Schuylkill and Susquehanna (at Rockville) Rivers, by James Barlett Rich, a Philadelphia photographer. Views by unidentified photographers include the Beaver, Monongahela, Raystown, Shenago, Youghiogheny and Susquehanna (North and West Branch) Rivers. Also include is a view of the Allegheny at New Kensington, by the U.S. Engineer's Office, Pittsburgh.
  • Inventory Report Part IV: Gazetteer of Lakes and Ponds, 1916, contains sixteen views of lakes and ponds in Crawford (especially Conneaut Lake), Lackawanna, Monroe, Pike, Susquehanna and Wyoming Counties by staff photographers.
  • Inventory Report Part VII: Water Power, 1913-1916, contains nearly 100 views of dams, waterfalls and power plants in the Delaware and Susquehanna River basins, taken by staff in 1914. Delaware Basin sites include Kalbach Company plants on Tulpehocken Creek; the Philadelphia Suburban Gas and Electric Company at Cromby; the Wilson Hauser and White Haven Water Company on the Lehigh River; the Pennsylvania Utilities Company at Easton; the Dexter/Lambert Silk Mill and Paupack Electric Company at Hawley; and smaller plants and dams at Birdsboro, Norristown, Fairmont, Womelsdorf, Manayunk, Mauch Chunk, Stroudsburg, Phoenixville and New Hope. Susquehanna Basin sites include the Lancaster Light, Heat and Power Company; Eagles Mere Light Company; the Pennsylvania Water and Power Company at Holtwood; Wrightsville Light and Power Company; York Haven Water and Power Company; and smaller plants and dams at Belleville, Boalsburg, Boiling Springs, Carlisle, Cypher, Grantham, Fishing Creek, Hummelstown, Huntingdon, Middle Creek, Middleburg, Mifflinburg, Millersburg, Orangeville, Raystown, Reynoldsdale, Selinsgrove, Shippensburg, Strasburg, Tunkhannock, Warrior Ridge and Yeagertown. Also included are power plants of paper mills at Mount Holly Springs and York Haven.
  • Inventory Report Part VIII: Floods, 1916, contains seventeen views of floods in Huntingdon, Lewistown, and Williamsport, 1889; Easton, 1903; Shenago, Tarentum, Warren and Wilkes-Barre, 1913; and Dunmore, Scranton and Westmoor, 1914, by unidentified photographers.
  • Inventory Report Part IX: Navigation, 1912-1916, contains eighty-four scenic views along the Delaware, Lehigh and Schuylkill Canals, most by James Bartlett Rich. Other items include the Tidewater Canal at Wrightsville, and dams on the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers taken by the U.S. Engineer's Office and other photographers.
  • Inventory Report Part X: Culm in the Streams of the Anthracite Region, 1916, contains eleven views by staff of coal shush and culm contaminating Mahanoy and Shenandoah Creeks, the Schuylkill River and other streams in the Anthracite Region.

Water and Power Resource Board Minutes and Reports

1 cu. ft.