| Year Approved : 2017 (18)
Medical doctor and missionary to Japan. Hepburn introduced western medicine to Japan and opened an academy that continues as a major university. He published an English/Japanese dictionary and developed a system of transcribing Japanese characters into the Latin alphabet called "Hepburn Romanization" still in use today.
African American Civil Rights leader, Sullivan promoted anti-discrimination and advocated many charitable and self-improvement programs for blacks in this country. He advised a number of US presidents. He also was involved in the movement to end Apartheid in South Africa.
Property purchased in 1945 which became the first amusement park in PA owned and operated by African Americans. The park offered African Americans recreational opportunities denied them at amusement parks from which they were excluded.
In 1868 a poor woman was accused of killing her infant, and was convicted at trial and sentenced to be hanged. The fledgling Women's Rights Movement led by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton took up her cause and launched a media campaign claiming Vaughn had been denied a fair trial by a jury of her peers. Gov. John Geary pardoned Vaughn the following year.
Constructed in the 1930s by Glen Alden Coal Company, this breaker processed nearly 7000 tons of coal daily through the 1970s. To distinguish its product, the company sprayed color on its anthracite, creating "blue coal." It was one of the first to utilize Menzies cones to separate coal and was first to use aerial disposal of waste by-products.
Noted soprano in the late 19th and early 20th century. Billed as the American Cantatrice, she appeared in Vaudeville, Broadway, and operas, and she toured with nationally-known bands, most notably, John Philip Sousa's.
Colonial tavern that served as a meeting place for Anti-federalists during the development of the US Constitution. At the time, Cumberland County was the frontier of Pennsylvania. Local residents believed in limited government and secure civil rights, and protested against eastern commercial, conservative domination. This can be seen as the birthplace of the Bill of Rights and the Democratic Party.
Baseball fields where both the first National League game and the first inter-racial game were played. They operated from 1864 to 1891 during the time when baseball evolved from an amateur leisure event to a competitive professional sport and "America's pastime."
The Jewish population in Philadelphia expanded sharply in the mid-19th century. Jews that became sick or injured had to go to hospitals that did not accommodate their religious traditions. This hospital was opened 1866, the 3rd Jewish hospital in the nation. Although open to all, it provided kosher food and access to rabbis for the dying, and respected death and burial traditions of the Jewish faith.
African American businessman who became one of the wealthiest blacks in the US by the time of his death in 1911. Primarily a caterer and restauranteur, Trower invested his profits in real estate, established a trade school for African Americans, and donated generously to religious and charitable causes. Noted in Booker T. Washington's The Negro Business (1907).
One of the 20th century's most influential American composers and lyricists. Blitzstein was a contemporary of Aaron Copland and Virgil Thomson and a mentor to Leonard Bernstein. His controversial 1937 musical The Cradle Will Rock made musical history when it was shut down by the government due to its pro-union themes. His translation of Threepenny Opera has been performed worldwide.
She received her PhD in chemistry in 1895 and went on to become a leader in research and implementation of food preservation measures. She investigated and improved commercial refrigeration and transportation of perishable food, very important during WWI for providing food to soldiers. She is credited with inventing the egg carton to safeguard eggs from breakage.
The black liberation group MOVE, founded in 1972 by John Africa, engaged in a conflict with law enforcement in 1978. A firefight erupted killing a police officer and injuring several on both sides. In 1985, when police tried to evict group members from a subsequent house they occupied, tragedy occurred. The City of Philadelphia, aided by the state police and the FBI, raided and bombed the residence when the group refused to vacate. These extreme measures resulted in an out-of-control fire that destroyed 61 homes and left about 250 homeless. Ultimately, 6 adults and 5 children were killed.
Part of the PA Mainline Canal from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh which reduced the travel time between the two cities from 3 weeks to 4 1/2 days. Dam #1 at Leechburg supplied the remaining 37 miles to Pittsburgh with water and provided slack water for 7 miles above the dam. There are many PHMC markers for Pennsylvania canal systems, but few that recognize the western division of the Main Line canal.
Founded in 1831, it is one of the oldest continuously operating community band in the US. The band played at the surrender of Lee at Appomattox and for the 150th anniversary of the Civil War. It was also present at two inaugurations for Presidents T. Roosevelt and Taft. The Repasz Band March, composed in 1897, has been performed nationwide.
Prominent 19th century manufacturer and businessman. He established Southwark Iron Foundry which became one of the largest and most advanced of its time. It built engines for important Civil War naval vessels. Merrick co-founded the Franklin Institute and was first president of the Pennsylvania Railroad.
Frontiersman captured by the Indians as a youth in 1756, Girty lived among his Native American captors for several years, learning their language and culture. Following his release in 1764, he became an Indian interpreter for the British. During the American Revolution, he became the chief military representative of the British among the Native tribes in PA, OH, KY, WV, IN, and MI. A controversial figure, he fought against the US in the War of 1812.
Claimed to be one of the first dedicated play spaces for children in the US, established in 1899. Richard and Sarah Smith were influenced by the American Playground Movement which began in the mid-1880s. The site is unique in that it has always operated as a private institution on public land, and has been racially and economically integrated - free and open to all.
| Year Approved : 2016 (23)
Early LGBT leader who was instrumental in having homosexuality removed from its classification as a mental illness and promoting the inclusion of gay publications in libraries across the nation.
Nobel Prize recipient in 1976 for identifying the hepatitis B virus and developing its diagnostic test and vaccine.
Statewide program administered by the Dept. of Agriculture to recognize Pennsylvania farmers whose property has been in the same family for 100 years or more. Started in PA by the Bradford County Historical Soc. in 1949, it was adopted statewide in 1976.
Native American leader in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Cornplanter was a key negotiator with the PA government and was granted several tracts of land for Seneca settlement in northwestern PA.
Originally organized as an iron foundry, the company began manufacturing iron plates for lining tunnels in the early 1900s. It achieved widespread success providing the durable lining for famous NY City tunnels: Holland, Lincoln, Queens Midtown, and for other major tunnel lining projects. A segment of a Davies & Thomas PA Railroad tunnel was on display at the St. Louis Worlds' Fair.
Bacteriologist that discovered the correlation between the consumption of raw milk and brucellosis or "undulant" fever and published her report in 1918. She worked for the USDA promoting the pasteurization of milk to prevent the disease and instrumental in the development of pasteurization laws passed in the 1920s.
Early woman OB/GYN. Her achievements include the expansion and improvement of nurse training, organizing one of the nation's first prenatal clinics and perfecting and promoting numerous birth-related procedures including episiotomies and Caesarian sections that led to a reduction in mortality and serious injuries.
Heyer was a Lutheran pastor and first American Lutheran missionary to India. Heyer was instrumental in the founding of the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, the first of its kind in the US, and established several Lutheran parishes in western PA.
The process pioneered in the US at this furnace in 1817 revolutionized the iron industry and greatly advanced the industrial revolution. The process also led to the formation of the nation's first workers' union in the metals industry, the Sons of Vulcan, the precursor of the United Steelworkers.
One of the foremost custom car body manufacturers in the nation, Fleetwood started in PA in 1909 and remained here for 20 years before becoming a subsidiary of General Motors. The chassis produced by the company were installed on many of the finest American cars, including the self-named Cadillac Fleetwood.
Basketball statistician for the NBA, Pollack developed a system of record-keeping adopted across the league. He coined the terms "slam-dunk," "rebound," "blocked-shots" and others that are now household words. Pollack revolutionized the way players were assessed that impacted recruiting, coaching, trading, and strategic play.
One of the earliest African American labor unions, hotel workers established it in 1883 in Philadelphia. The organization began protesting pay inequities as compared to white workers. It also set up a benevolent aid fund for members. It spawned chapters in many major US cities.
The first incorporated stock insurance company in the nation, INA was established in 1792 as a marine insurer. In 1794 it became the first company to insure the contents of a building from fire. The company pioneered the Homeowners Insurance Policy in 1950, one of the most successful and imitated of all insurance products.
The first African American woman cartoonist, Ormes produced a nationally syndicated column in the 1930s for the Pittsburgh Courier, featuring her Torchy Brown character. Although black, the character possessed a sophistication rarely seen in depictions of African Americans at the time. She went on to create similar comic strips that went against stereotype.
Governor of PA from 1951 to 1955. His administration instituted the first permanent sales tax in PA, ended segregation of the National Guard, and opened the State Police to African Americans.
Civil War doctor considered the Father of Battlefield Medicine. Letterman designed a prototype medical supply wagon, devised a system of triage stations and mobile field hospitals, and instituted an efficient management system for supply distribution and patient evacuation. Many of his principles are still used in modern warfare.
The first slave ship arrived at the Philadelphia port in 1684, carrying African slaves to William Penn's newly established colony. In the early years of PA, the Quakers in power did little to discourage slavery. Many owned their own slaves and did not prevent the importation of slaves to the colony. Although PA is considered a leader in the abolitionist movement, slavery was an accepted institution in the state's early history.
An untrained Civilian Conservation Corps unit was sent to fight a forest fire that turned to tragedy. The unit was comprised of boys in their late teens; seven of them and a supervisor were killed by the fire. This incident is used as a case study in training today and principles of wild land firefighting were developed as a result.
Established in 1974, the institution houses the families of hospitalized children for free. In a cooperative effort between Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, the Philadelphia Eagles and McDonalds, a nationwide campaign was launched to raise money for and build the first Ronald McDonald House. There are now over 350 houses at most major hospitals throughout the US and in 38 countries.
Billiards phenom who was the Women's Pocket Billiard Champion of the World from 1932-1940. McGinnis toured the US with Willie Mosconi and defeated some of the best pool players in the nation, mostly men. In a widely publicized exhibition match she soundly defeated the great woman athlete Babe Didrikson Zaharias.
A polymer scientist who invented Kevlar. Kwolek worked as a chemist for Dupont for 40 years. In 1975 Dupont made Kevlar bullet-proof vests available to law enforcement agencies. This protective gear has become critical to the safety of law enforcement personnel world-wide.
Nationally recognized soul gospel music group, they were on the cutting edge of the genre for 30 years. Their cover of Paul Simon's hit Loves Me Like a Rock, the original of which they recorded with him, won a Grammy Award in 1973. The band was featured in the NY Times and TIME magazine and they have influenced artists such as: the Temptations, Stevie Wonder, and James Brown. The band was a recipient of a PA Governor's Award for the Arts in 2006.
Governor of PA from 1963 to 1967. He focused on public works, the Peace Corps and other economic aid, and fiscal responsibility. He went on to be an advisor to presidents Eisenhower, Johnson, and Ford, an ambassador, and a UN representative.
| Year Approved : 2015 (25)
Greenfield was a successful businessman involved in real estate, banking, retail, hotels, newspapers, and transportation. He was involved in local, state, and national politics. He supported both Jewish and Catholic charities and organizations and promoted religious and racial diversity. In his role as chair of the Philadelphia Planning Commission, he helped guide the revitalization of Society Hill.
Founded in 1871 in Wilkes-Barre, this organization of mining professionals was formed to attain a more economical production of useful minerals and metal, and to improve the safety and welfare of those involved in the mining industry. It was one of the earliest associations of engineering professionals in the nation and known as an Engineering Founder Society.
A Quaker abolitionist who was a pioneer in the education of females and blacks. In the 1750s he established schools for both, some of the first in Pennsylvania. He was tireless and unwavering in his opposition to slavery, writing numerous pamphlets and correspondence on the subject. He is credited with convincing many, including Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush, to promote abolition.
Begun in 1896 and designated a Heritage Competition by the US Equestrian Federation (USEF), the Devon Horse show is the oldest and largest outdoor multi-breed competition in the nation. It was a founding member of the American Horse Show Association, which became the USEF.
In the summer of 1813, seven Erie women created a battle flag for Oliver Hazard Perry to fly on his ship, the Lawrence, in the Battle of Lake Erie. Perry used these inspiring last words of recently deceased Captain James Lawrence to rally his crew to victory, one of the first for the nation's fledgling navy. The words have become the unofficial motto of the US Navy, and the flag a national icon now on display at the US Naval Academy.
A pioneer in the field of homeopathic medicine, Hering's research and educational methods were ground breaking. He developed numerous medicines, established the first school of homeopathy in the US, and published books and journals still influential today. He was a founder of the American Institute of Homeopathy in 1844, the first national medical society in the US.
McCleery is credited with saving the Great Plains Wolf (or Lobo Wolf) from extinction. He established a wolf park in Pennsylvania in the 1920s. The US government had instituted a campaign to exterminate wolves because the danger they posed to people and livestock. McCleery petitioned the US Biological Survey to allow him to pay for the wolves they captured to be sent to him rather than killed. He instituted a breeding program within his pack to retain the pure bloodline. The wolves were moved to the western US following McCleery's death and a park was established in Montana in 1980 where it continues today.
A Pulitzer Prize winning photojournalist, whose iconic photo Saigon Execution brought to light the brutality of the Vietnam War and swayed public opinion about the war. Adams got his start as a photographer in his PA home town, shooting photographs for his high school yearbook and as a staff photographer for the local newspaper. After a career of national and international acclaim, Adams was buried in New Kensington.
A renowned singer and actress, Ethel Waters was born into poverty in Chester, PA. Having an unstable family life, she was forced into marriage to an abusive husband at the age of thirteen. Originally working as a maid, she began singing at nightclubs in Philadelphia, and eventually made her way to Broadway. Her blues style reflected her difficult early life. She became a Grammy winner and Academy and Emmy Award nominee.
Two troopers, members of the fledgling PA State Police force, were killed in Jefferson County in 1905. Pursuing several fugitives of the infamous Black Hand Society, Privates Henry and Zehrlinger were killed in a shoot-out by the outlaws who had taken over a local residence.
A nationally recognized artist and illustrator, Parrish was born, raised, and educated in Philadelphia. He is known for painting in vibrant shades of blue and capturing the spontaneity of movement. He was in the forefront of commercial art, realizing that presenting appealing artwork on advertisements boosted sales. His works have garnered widespread popularity and can be found in museums worldwide.
The oldest medical library association in the world, it was founded in 1898 to improve the condition of medical libraries and thus facilitate the availability of medical literature to medical practitioners, researchers, educators and students. This increased accessibility of records led to critical advances in the medical professions.
A tireless worker for peace and relief movements beginning in WWI, Olmstead was a member of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom and eventually the executive director of the national organization for 20 years. She traveled the world speaking on behalf of WILPF and its causes, and she was an advocate for women's rights. She received many awards for her efforts.
This well-documented event related to Underground Railroad activity, brings to light the anti-slavery sentiment in southcentral PA in the mid-18th century. Three fugitive slaves entered Perry County in 1841 pursued by bounty hunters and were captured. Several Newport citizens not only helped them to escape and provided them with food and money, but they were assessed a substantial fine in court due to their humanitarian actions.
A company that was pioneering in the art tile business, Robertson established its own laboratories early to keep improving its products. They produced glazed, embossed wall and fireplace tile and floor tile. In 1893 it joined with other companies to form Associated Tile Manufacturers, a forerunner to modern trade associations. Herman Mueller, well-regarded in the tile industry, worked briefly for Robertson and brought some of his innovations to the company, notably the use of tile to line an indoor swimming pool.
Best known for establishing the Roxy Theater and opening Radio City Music Hall in New York City, Rothafel got his start in a theater in Pennsylvania. He operated the Family Theater in Forest City for two years, popularizing such innovations as daylight movies and "perfuming" an audience. He combined film and live action to produce a new kind of show. He was progressive in attracting patrons with persuasive advertising.
A pioneer in women's journalism, Hale was an early American female author and editor. She began editing the first magazine for women in the nation, the Ladies Magazine in 1828. It became Godey's Lady's Book in 1837. For four decades as its editor, Hale substantially increased its readership and made it the leading American women's literary and fashion periodical. She also is credited for advancing the idea of a national day of Thanksgiving for 20 years, and was finally successful with President Lincoln.
A leader in the Philadelphia music scene for nearly 50 years, Sigma Studios produced records for many nationally known acts such as, the O'Jays, the Spinners, Harold Melvin and the Blue Notes, David Bowie and Billy Joel. Sigma was on the cutting edge of the soul music scene. It was one of the first in the nation to introduce 24-track recording and console automation. Many of its innovations are still in use today.
Established by Rev. Leon Sullivan in 1968, this shopping center was the first of this type of venture developed, owned, and managed by African Americans. It was funded by investors from Sullivan's congregation at the nearby Zion Baptist Church. Visited by a number of presidents and presidential candidates, this location was prominent on the Philadelphia political scene. It sparked a number of similar projects across the US and it remains a successful enterprise in center city and a symbol of economic empowerment and self-sufficiency.
A groundbreaking archaeologist, Proskouriakoff revolutionized the world's understanding of Mayan hieroglyphics. Trained in architecture, she produced detailed and accurate drawings of Mayan buildings. She received numerous awards for her archaeological research, including the Order of the Quetzal from Guatemala, the country's highest award for a foreigner.
Built by Reading Railroad in 1931, it was the largest commercial structure of its kind in the world. Combining a freight terminal, office space, a warehouse, a showroom, and a parking garage, it was created as a multi-tenant mercantile hub on the railroad line and near the heart of center city. The spaces were linked by high-speed passenger and freight elevators. On the National Register of Historic Places, after being sold by the Reading Company in 1954, it went on to house various government agencies and businesses.
African American Farm that was established c. 1800 and remained in the same family for over 200 years. This property tells the story of free blacks in rural PA. It is believed to have been an Underground Railroad station, due to strong anti-slavery sentiments in the integrated community and evidence that the family was active in abolitionist activities.
In 1884, Westinghouse discovered natural gas on his property and drilled several wells for its extraction. At the time the fuel was unsafe and dangerous to use. Over the next few years, Westinghouse patented over 30 inventions for the distribution, safe use, and metering of natural gas. His work was instrumental in the expansion and availability of natural gas as an important widespread energy source.
Founded by Quakers in 1689, the school was envisioned and chartered by PA founder William Penn. It is the oldest continually operating Quaker school in the world. Its corporation was a pioneer in education, establishing free tuition for the poor in 1697, financial aid through scholarships in 1701, schools for girls in 1754, and schools to educate all races in 1770.
The oldest investor-owned utility in the nation, the public water system in York was incorporated in 1816. Most of the 25 water systems in America at the time were started by local governments or wealthy town founders. The idea of raising private funds for a public benefit was innovative. The company's dividend record - longest consecutive in America - speaks to its success.
| Year Approved : 2014 (27)
Doctor and businessman who amassed one of the most extensive collections of early 20th century art in the US. He also was an early supporter of African American artists and promoter of their art. At his death, his indenture on the operations of the Barnes Foundation led to a lengthy court battle regarding the relocation of his collection, which garnered national attention.
Provincial Governor of PA, 1748-49. Laid out the town Kensington, now part of Philadelphia, and during his term, Kensington was briefly the working capital. He organized troops along the Delaware to prevent Spanish pirates from plundering Philadelphia, orchestrated Indian treaties, and served as judge and master of chancery.
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, this plant supplied a vital product of this era and was one of the largest of its kind in the world. The business employed a patented technique that improved durability. Supplying horse shoes to the British government during the Boer War and afterward, it enjoyed a reputation for quality and received orders from all over the world.
Built by African American abolitionist Robert Purvis to serve as a meeting place and arena for discussion of anti-slavery topics. Many black and white abolitionist leaders of the time spoke here and urged support of the UGRR, protest of fugitive slave laws, and other related activism.
The first commercial production of radium in the US was accomplished at James and Joseph Flannery's Standard Chemical Co. in 1913. In the following decade, it produced over one half of the world' supply of radium. In 1921 it produced 1 gram of radium to be presented to Marie Curie, who discovered radium, during her visit to this pioneering laboratory. NOTE: Recommended title is Standard Chemical Company with mention of the Flannerys and Curie in the text.
Physician, scientist, and Arctic explorer, Kane contributed significantly to arctic study in the mid-19th century. His writings on the polar regions were very influential and his espousal of an "Open Polar Sea" was widely accepted. His explorations in Smith Sound, Kane Basin, and Kennedy Channel paved the way for Peary's North Pole expedition.
One of the founders of the National Basketball Assoc., Gottlieb was influential in the sport since its earliest years. Managed the dominant S.P.H.A.S. basketball team and led them to numerous championships. He helped run the international tour of the Harlem Globetrotters. A member of the NBA Rules Committee for 25 years, he introduced new rules to improve the game, and spent his lifetime advancing the sport of basketball.
Impeccably preserved vernacular neighborhood in the heart of Philadelphia - one of the nation's oldest and a National Historic Landmark. There have been extensive studies of these homes, their owners, and the area's transformation over its nearly 300 years of existence, shedding light on a very diverse working class community.
Pennsylvania-German printer and publisher, Benner's Der Bauern Freund (The Farmer's Friend) was a widely read by German-speaking Americans in the early to mid-19th century. Published weekly from 1828-1858, and preserved in its entirety, it provides valuable contemporary accounts of the Jacksonian era.
|S. Middleton Township||Cumberland|
An accomplished naturalist, Craighead did numerous studies of insects and their impact on forests while Chief Forest Entomologist for the USDA. In 1950 he authored Insect Enemies of the Eastern Forest, which remains the definitive book on the subject. Following his retirement to PA, he assisted the state forestry dept. in dealing with insect infestations. NOTE: Panel recommends inclusion of his significant children on a Craighead Family Naturalists marker.
Creator and host of the nationally acclaimed and long-running children's public television program, Mr. Rogers Neighborhood. Produced in Pittsburgh from 1968 through 2001, the program emphasized the community spirit Rogers experienced growing up in Latrobe. Rogers made significant contributions to early education and children's media.
A native of Emlenton, PA and pioneer in natural gas production, transmission, and distribution. Crawford established the Columbia Gas and Electric Corp. in 1926, a model successful multi-state gas utility, and in the 1930s, the largest in the world. NOTE: Panel recommends inclusion of his father and brother, also influential in the early natural gas industry, on a Crawford Family marker.
|W. Bradford Township||Chester|
Considered the Father of American Dendrology, Marshall wrote the first and definitive book on American trees and shrubs in 1785. The book was widely cited in Europe. He also cultivated many American species and he exported them to European gardens, including that of Louis XVI of France and King George of England.
Along with John Paul Jones, considered the Father of the American Navy. Due to numerous naval victories, Barry was appointed Commodore by Gen. Washington during the American Revolution. As such he won the final battle at sea against the British in 1783. When the US Navy was created in 1794, Barry was chosen to lead the new department.
At age 19, became the first American and youngest competitor to win the U.S. Open of golf in 1911, and repeated in 1912. Traditionally a British game, McDermott's wins helped to popularize the sport in the US. In the years following, the PGA was established, two additional golf majors emerged in the US, and American golfers dominated the US Open and achieved prominence in the world of golf.
The most played college football rivalry in the US, the first game was played in 1884. The rivalry has been widely acknowledged and it has been reported in national publications such as the New York Times and Sports Illustrated. Their 150th game will be played in 2014 at Yankee Stadium in New York, NY.
World renowned orchestra conductor, Stokowski directed the Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra from 1912 - 1940. During his tenure, he developed a unique sound that came to be known as the "Philadelphia Sound." He adopted a seating plan used by most orchestras today. He is probably most famous for his collaboration and appearance on the film Fantasia.
Children's book by Newbery Award-winning author Virginia Sorensen, written during her husband's 6-year tenure at Edinboro College. The book describes the maple syrup industry of rural northwestern PA, an industry in which PA is ranked third in the nation. Sorensen based her characters on real farm families from Erie County.
This place of worship was the first Nation of Islam temple in PA. In its formative years, Malcolm X and Wallace Muhammad had active roles in its development. It played a pivotal role in conveying to Black Pennsylvanians a healthy sense of racial pride and self-worth that gave rise to the Black Nationalist Movement.
The earliest permanent Catholic parish in PA, it was founded by English and German Jesuits in 1733. The first Catholic churches in NJ and DE had OSJ as their "mother church." OSJ missionaries helped found parishes in frontier regions of PA.
Regiment of the PA National Guard that was headquartered for many years at the Erie Armory, listed on the National Register. The PNG, or 28th Infantry Division, is the oldest continuous in the nation, and the 112th traces its roots to a Civil War volunteer regiment. The unit fought valiantly in both World Wars, and continues to serve the state and nation with distinction.
It is the site of the PA Game Commission's original training center for Game Protectors and Wildlife Conservation Officers. Claimed to be the first in the nation, this facility was established in 1931, and became a model for other states.
Rescue efforts as a result of a mine cave-in utilized, for the first time, a borehole technique that has become ubiquitous worldwide for similar mine disasters. The same technique was used at Quecreek and Chile in recent decades. The event prompted revisions to state mining regulations and to the federal Coal Mine Safety Act.
Completed in 1901, it was the first Croatian Catholic parish in the nation. St. Nicholas was impressive architecturally, in a modified Romanesque style featuring eastern European styled onion domes. It was demolished in 2013 following a vigorous yet unsuccessful preservation campaign.
The Stuart Tank is a WWII tank built by the American Car and Foundry in Berwick, PA. It was a light tank first supplied to the British army and was the fastest tank of its day. The "shoot and scoot" tank tactic was pioneered on the Stuart Tank. From 1940-1944, over 15,000 Stuart Tanks were produced in Berwick.
The number 64 represents the 64 graduates of Philadelphia's Edison High School who fought and died in the Vietnam War. No other school in the nation lost so many. This poor community's loss gives perspective to the tragedy of the draft system – these young men had no options for waivers, served their country, and paid the ultimate sacrifice.
Wesley is the first AME Zion denomination in PA. In 1820, they split from the Bethel Church and soon after affiliated with New York City's Zion Church and several other black parishes to form the new A.M.E. Zion Church. The church was very active in the 19th century in abolitionist causes and race improvement events, and hosted nationally renowned African American leaders.